Crime Against Public Security

Introduction

Terrorism is a crime against public security and public order in all its forms and manifestations, which presupposes inhumanity and cruelty. Terrorism has become one of the most acute and urgent problems of global significance in a very short time, and the specialists’ predictions of the further development of terrorist activities do not seem very reassuring. The objective of this paper is to discuss evolution of terrorism.

Keywords: public security, cruelty, urgent problems, terrorist activities

 

The Evolution of Terrorism

The earliest known terrorist group in the history is a Sicarii sect, which acted in Palestine in the 66 - 73 years AD. Another terrorist group acted in the XI century in the East. A secret sect, which name is considered to be connected with many treacherous murders, was founded by Hassan al-Sabbah, whom historians consider the founder of the ideology of terrorism (Chalian & Blin, 2007). He was called a genius of evil, and he not only founded the ideology of terrorism, but also created a prototype of a new state formation - a terrorist state, in which there was a clear hierarchy of command, and there were no common borders, and well-defined territory.

A powerful impetus to the spread of terrorism gave the French Revolution, which was the first encounter of humanity with political terrorism. After the 1850s, terrorist attacks in Europe became systematic, but they were not as global as in the late XX century.

Western and Eastern civilizations did not lag behind Europe in this respect from. In America, presidents McKinley and Garfield were killed by the terrorists. An attempt on the life of Bismarck, German kaiser, was made. More successful attempts on lives of political representatives were made in 1894, when French president Carnot was killed, in 1898, when the Austro-Hungarian Empress Elizabeth was murdered, in 1990, when King of Italy Umberto was assassinated and In 1987, when Spanish Prime Minister Canovas was killed.

In the XX century, before the First World War, terrorism was considered as a sign of the left movement, although neither Irish nor Macedonian fighters for independence, as well as neither Armenian nor Bengali terrorists, had anything to do with socialism. Also, after the First World War, terrorist organizations were supported primarily by the right and separatist groups, such as the Croatian terrorist groups that received assistance from Italy and Hungary. Terrorism was cultivated on the periphery of many fascist movements, for example, the Romanian “Iron Guard”.

In the 30-40s of XX century, terrorists have created right-wing extremist organizations “Muslim Brotherhood” and “Young Egypt”. Even in India, with its traditional rejection of violence, a terrorist group “Bhagat Singh” gained unexpected popularity.

The actions of terrorists became less extreme after World War II, and they were replaced with the so-called low-intensity conflicts - the war in Korea and Vietnam. Terrorist groups became a part of the guerrilla movements or army units (Stepanova, 2008). This happened to the Jewish terrorist groups, which joined the Israeli army at the beginning of the civil war in Palestine, and the Arab armies.

However, in the late 60s - early 70s of XX century, there was a sharp intensification of the terrorist movement. This period became a particular milestone in the evolution of terrorism in the world. Symbolically, the most high-profile terrorist attacks took place in the moments of the greatest unity of humanity, in particular, during the Olympic Games that were held in Munich on September 5, 1972 (Pedahzur & Perliger, 2009). Militants of the terrorist group “Black September” took then Israeli athletes hostage. During the assault, there were killed many people, among which were athletes, terrorists and representatives of the German police.

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Over the past thirty years, terrorism has become particularly refined, extreme and ruthless. It resorts to various kinds of violent acts, such as explosions in trains, train stations, restaurants and other public places, especially during the festivities. Particularly popular is the use of vehicles loaded with explosives, frequent kidnapping of statesmen, diplomats, party leaders, as well as murder and seizure of state institutions, embassies, and aircrafts.

Summary

There are also new spheres, in which terrorism started to progress: air, nuclear, biological, environmental, and information. All of them include obvious features of political terrorism. Its goal is not cash or release of the arrested militants from prison; its goal is much bigger – to force whole peoples and nations to their knees.

History shows that all the major terrorist events took place in the last decade of the XX century. A strategy of modern terrorism employed during this period was to improve and perfect its tactics. Terrorists begin to unite in the international “brigades”, use the latest scientific achievements of mankind, invent and use the unprecedented terrorist know-how.

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