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Healthy People 2020 Model


Nowadays, the development of healthcare and medicine makes scientists wonder about the role nursing plays in modern society. In fact, the analysis of the notion of epidemiology, health, and illness is becoming an important factor for provision and promotion of public health. Based on the mentioned above, the following paper is aimed to assess the relation of epidemiology, health, and illness community of health nursing as well as define the contribution of epidemiology to public health. In addition, it will discuss how evidence-based practice was used to promote a healthy community and the levels of care and disease prevention.


Epidemiology, Health, and Illness in Relation to Community of Health Nursing

Epidemiology is supposed to be the medical science that describes and analyses the laws of the spread and emergence of diseases of different origins and etiologies in order to develop preventive measures that range from primary, secondary, and premorbid to tertiary ones. The epidemiology of disease implies the definition of the set of cases which causes the disease in the specific area at a particular point of time among certain groups of the population.

Over the entire period of development after bacteriological discoveries, epidemiology emerged as a science that studies the laws of the epidemic process in the interests of its elimination and prevention. With the expansion of prevention beyond the borders of infectious diseases, there is a need for a community approach in the study of not only infectious but also non-communicable diseases. The most representative epidemiological studies that evaluate the epidemiology of both communicable and non-communicable diseases is carried out under the auspices of the World Health Organization.

The goal of epidemiology implies the identification of patterns of occurrence, distribution, and termination of human diseases as well as the development of prevention and control methods. The tasks of epidemiology imply the following:

  1. The definition of medical and socio-economic significance of the disease, its place in the structure of pathology.
  2. The analysis of spread of the disease over time (years, months, etc.), the territory and different population groups (age, sex, professional, etc.).
  3. The identification of the causes and conditions that determine the nature of the observed spread of the disease.
  4. The development of recommendations based on the optimization of prevention actions.
  5. The development of the forecast of the disease spread.

The notion of health implies the state of complete mental as well as physical and social well-being of an individual based on the absence of disease or infirmity. For a man as a social norm, the notion of health implies the existence of admitting more fully participate in different kinds of social and working life.

On the contrary, the disease implies the life damage of the body with the assistance of compensation processes as well as the disturbed functions. The possible outcomes of the disease are either recovery or death. Since the disease is primarily a process of life, it is natural that there are all signs of life and disease. In a sick body, there can be observed the various exchange of matter and energy. The patient has body reactivity, adaptability to the existence in the environment that occurs in various forms of growth and reproduction processes of cells (Vorvick, 2013).

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The Contribution of Epidemiology to Public Health and Community Health Nursing

The study of mass non-infectious diseases made the epidemiologists come to the conclusion that the use of the epidemiological method developed for the study of patterns of occurrence and spread of infectious diseases can be very effective. The latter studies the causes and patterns of development as well as mass distribution of non-communicable diseases and disorders health caused by occupational or other hazards such as industrial, agricultural or road imperfections, various chemical or physical effects, etc. However, most of the epidemiologists have an extremely negative attitude to the attempts to spread the concept of "epidemiology" on non-communicable diseases believing that it is linked to the phenomenon of parasitism, the vital activity of infectious diseases in human society.

In the past, scientists and doctors could publish their works without any quality control of the information they provide highlighted in their publications. However, not all progressive doctors had the opportunity to publicly share their observations, theories, and experimental results. Furthermore, very few skilled professionals had access to the storerooms of the world’s literature and new publications of their countrymen and foreign colleagues.

Moreover, no one knew how the statement of a physician is true, while other doctors did not confirm or deny these statements using more advanced methods of data analysis. The accuracy of disease indicates how strong cause and effect relationship (of the disease, effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the treatment, side effects, etc.) based on environmental factors both external and internal (located inside the body) promoting or opposing the emergence of a causal relationship (Vorvick, 2013).

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The Levels of Care and Prevention in Relation to Community Health Nursing

The questions of disease prevention through personal hygiene and rational dieters have always occupied an important place in medicine. However, the development of scientific bases of prevention began only in the 19th century due to the development of general biological sciences, medical sciences, and the appearance of various disciplines involved in private matters such as physiology, hygiene, and epidemiology. Thus, it played a pivotal role in the spread of ideas of social clinical medicine.

In the 20th century, there have been witnessed significant progress in various fields of medicine. These achievements are based on fundamental clinical trials. On the one hand, people are armed with a huge range of medicines and modern technologies while on the other hand, these advances have led to undeserved oblivion simple but effective preventive measures. Nowadays, there can be defined three key categories of prevention covering primary, secondary, and tertiary types.

Nevertheless, it should be noted that the unhealthy way of life due to the side effects of urbanization threatens to undo all the progress obtained by the previous generations of researchers and practitioners. There is a huge amount of scientific research and practical recommendations for medical and non-medical preventive measures at different levels of public health.

The Evidence-Based Practice in the Healthy People 2020 Model

Among the various initiatives of the Healthy People 2020 mode, there can be defined an increase of public awareness as well as an understanding of the determinants of disability and disease as well as general health and efficient treatment including prevention of the various diseases and opportunities for general health progress. It can be based on the support of the public prevention activities present in the system of social, economic, legal, educational, sanitary, epidemiological, and therapeutic measures systematically conducted by government institutions and civil society organizations. The latter aims ensuring the full development of physical and spiritual forces of citizens and eliminating harmful effects on the health of population.

The public prevention measures are aimed at guaranteeing a high level of public health, elimination of the causes of generating disease, creation of optimal conditions of collective life including work conditions, leisure, financial security, living standards expanding the range of food products and consumer goods as well as the development of public health, education, and culture (Scherrer, 2012). The effectiveness of social preventive measures depends on the conscious attitude of citizens to protection of their health and that of others. The practical implementation of social prevention requires legislative actions, ongoing significant financial expenses as well as joint actions of all parts of the state authorities, medical facilities, and businesses.

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To sum up, the provision of efficient nursing and healthcare services is directly related to the rate of expertise among medical personnel. The paper discussed the relation of epidemiology, health, and illness community of health nursing as well as defined the contribution of epidemiology to public health. In addition, it proved how evidence-based practice can be used to promote a healthy community, raise the levels of care and disease prevention through the discussion of the practice in the Healthy People 2020 Model.

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