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Significance of Sustainability in the Hospitality Industry in Ukraine


The present study sought to investigate the importance of sustainability in the hospitality industry in Kiev, Ukraine. In most cases, the hospitality industry has overly been concerned with environmental measures and ignores the socio-cultural and economic facets of sustainability. The concept of sustainability should be approached in a comprehensive manner. So that one can be able to understand the significance of the sustainability in the hospitality industry, it was necessary to view any sustainable practices within the industry in a holistic approach. All the dimensions of sustainability should be assessed and a comprehensive significance of all forms of sustainability that are relevant within the operations of the hospitality industry assessed. The study used a mixed method approach where both the qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data.

MiniCalc with vip services

Questionnaires and interviews were integral tools that were used to collect data from the field. A sample size of 120 was chosen to answer the questionnaires. SPSS version 21 was used in the analysis of quantitative data. Thematic and content analysis was utilized to assess the qualitative data. From the analysis of the data, the author identified reduced costs, increased productivity, reduced carbon emissions and increased competitive advantage as the most important factors in terms of the hospitality industry engaging in sustainability practices.


The concept of sustainability has been viewed as one of the major issues in the hospitality industry around the globe. Its significance within the sector cannot be taken for granted. Hospitality sustainability services entail activities that have been done to support the attainment of desired objectives in different firms operating within the hospitality sector (Errami, Brocx & Semeniuk, 2015). One of the major aims of practicing sustainability in the hospitality industry is to attract more clients who might be motivated by diverse aspects of hospitality firms. The motivating factors of accommodation facilities can be classified as ‘push’ and ‘pull ‘factors. In order to understand the hospitality sector and what drives people to a particular destination, it is important to analyze it and understand the significance of sustainability that may attract customers (Hyde, Ryan, and Woodside, 2012). This knowledge can help players in the hospitality industry enhance the image of the destination and improve the safety of the tourists.

The aim of this study was to analyze the significance derived from sustainable development in the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine in order to understand the value that companies can gain through engaging in sustainable practices (Henderson & McIlwraith, 2013). Hospitality firms that tend to engage in economic, social, and ecological sustainability practices tend to attract many clients, a factor that increases the rate of attainment of desired objectives. Tourists and holidaymakers are motivated by the efforts taken by a country to create a sustainable environment for plants and animals (Jones, Hillier &Comfort, 2016). The three factors; citizens, the government, and the businesses play a significant role in the provision of sustainable practices and leadership that are suitable for attracting tourists.

Ukraine has the highest number of tourist destinations after Russia among the European countries and offers the widest range of Black Sea tourist attractions (Jauhari, 2014). The country was formerly an important constituent of the Soviet Union before its collapse (Hartwell, 2013; Tribe et al., 2000). Sightseers and nature lovers coming from diverse regions of the globe have developed a great interest in Kyiv and this has created a lot of interest for the hospitality firms operating within the section of the world to be more focused on basic sustainability factors. However, despite various social and political problems affecting eastern Ukraine, most of the tourist sites have not been severely affected apart from Crimea (Konovalova and Jatuliavičienė, 2015). In Ukraine, the hotel business remains the most promising and successful business and the most lucrative form of investment.

It is imperative to understand the significance of sustainable business practices within the hospitality industry in Ukraine. The results from the analysis of sustainability will be valuable for businesses and companies seeking to venture in the tourism industry or looking to develop new products and marketing strategies. It will also help in understanding what can be done to improve the products, services, and activities to attract more tourists or sustain the regular customers for a longer period in the hospitality industry in Ukraine.

There are various luxury hotels positioned in prime locations in Kyiv uniting the city’s central businesses with the historical districts. Some of the hotels located near the International Commercial arbitration court at the Chamber of Commerce of Ukraine include Hyatt Regency Kiev, Intercontinental Kyiv, Radisson Blu Hotel, and Kyiv Hotel among others. There is a combination of three, four, and five-star hotels which attract and host tourists and holidaymakers from various parts of Europe. These hotels provide their customers with excellent opportunities for conferences while enjoying the magnificent view in the city, in addition to exceptional services. The hospitality industry has been at the forefront in advocating for the need to have a sustainable environmental program.

In 2016, Kyiv concluded a collaborative project called ‘Lunch for Sustainability’ that involved educating stakeholders on sustainable development in action (Konovalova, and Jatuliavičienė, 2015). According to Laras (2016), the main objective of the sustainability programs spearheaded by these stakeholders is to educate and engage children from an early age to achieve results by solving environmental issues like climate change. The long term objective is to introduce the aspect of a sustainable lifestyle in the society, thus reducing the environmental damage and improve social and economic sustainability as key measures for community development.


The study discusses the significance of sustainability to the hospitality industry in the top five-star hotels in Kyiv, Ukraine.


  1. Objective 1: To review the existing literature on hospitality and sustainability in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  2. Objective 2: To investigate the importance of sustainability within the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine.
  3. Objective 3: To offer recommendations to the Ukrainian tourism sector and future academic studies on sustainable tourism in Kyiv, Ukraine.


The idea of sustainable growth was coined and defined in the 1980s in the Brundtland report (van Rheede & Blomme, 2012). The hospitality industry all over the world has worked in order to engage different activities with sustainable practices that target the environment, social-cultural issues, and the economic aspects. However, the concept of sustainability and its significance has been widely debated and researched. There is been difficulties that have been entrenched in defining the term (Sloan, Legrand, and Chen, 2009). This complexity has created a barrier that may not allow precise sustainable practices and actions to be taken within the hospitality industry.

Most of the hospitality firms have been able to acknowledge the fact that unsustainable practices usually contribute to the completion of resources. Voluntary sustainable practices play a great role in the success of any hospitality industry (van Rheede & Blomme, 2012). Industries can do this if they involve themselves in self-regulation as well as engage in practices that contribute towards sustainability based on the long term benefits that are accrued from these practices (Vianna, Meekan, Pannell, Marsh and Meeuwig, 2012; Waligo, Clarke and Hawkins, 2013). The drive towards sustainability may not sufficiently be explained but could be thought of as generally a sense of moral responsibility and attainment of self-interest or firms wanting to avoid governmental regulations.

Different people view the concept of sustainability in diverse perspectives. Also, sustainability can be considered as either significant or insignificant depending on the benefits or costs accrued when different firms try to implement practices that lead to sustainability. In addition, there is no complete agreement as to whether the concept of sustainability should be activities of the public or the private sectors (Osborne, Radnor, and Nasi, 2013; Murphy, 2013). Both the public and private sectors have not been able to reach a mutual agreement with regards to the concept of sustainability.

The hospitality industry is much broader as the majority of business niches where customer satisfaction and meeting the leisurely needs are mainly focused on achieving environmental and economic sustainability (Saeidi, Sofian, Saeidi, Saeidi, and Saaeidi, 2015). Hospitality industry comprises thousands of existing organizations and businesses such as hotels, restaurants, pubs, bars, night clubs, fast food establishments, coffee shops, and foodservice management. The industry involves an array of jobs with different roles and offers a unique, dynamic, and sociable working life. Thus, this sector is very important for the growth and development of the Ukrainian economy.

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While customer satisfaction is essential for any business, the sustainable hospitality industry relies entirely on the happiness of the customers (Walters, 2014). This can be attributed to the fact that the businesses in this sector are mainly based on providing luxury services and it is always necessary to maintain this service through enhancing sustainable services within the hospitality sector (Goldstein & Primlani, 2012; Chen, 2009). The other defining moment of the industry is the reliance on leisure time and disposable income (Jenkins & Schröder, 2013). For this reason, some of the businesses are mainly focused on attracting tourists and rich patrons who have extra money for the services provided. Customers must have the time, money, mobility, and motivation to travel and dine out in order for hospitality to take place.

Therefore, tourism has provided a very good opportunity for the economic growth of the hospitality industry in addition to social growth. Besides, it provides a platform where environmental sustainability can be practiced (Petrikova and Borsekova, 2016) International and domestic tourism is a multi-billion industry that has created millions of jobs, has offered consumers to the hospitality industry and also generates revenue for many countries.

Many hospitality firms have successfully implemented the sustainability issues within their system. However, it is imperative to understand that the implementation of sustainability should vary depending on the particular place (Bruns-Smith, Choy, Chong, and Verma, 2015) because of the diverse needs present in every region as well as the understanding of the benefits accrued from such practices.

Over the last few years, hoteliers and other players have been overly concerned with issues such as hotel and development; which form the major part of their sustainability efforts. From this approach, the significance of sustainability cannot be taken for granted. (Sloan, Legrand & Chen, 2009). Environmental, economic, political, and social stability are among the most important issues affecting the smooth interaction of people in the world today (Parsa, 2015).

Historically, the hospitality sector has had a dynamic environmental effect on water and energy consumption, the use of durable and consumer goods, and solid waste management (Jauhari, 2014). Hotels consume huge amounts of energy in their operations for fuel, lighting, and other consumer needs (Sloan, Legrand & Chen, 2009). However, restaurants face numerous business challenges in their operations especially on meeting the demands for sustainability. The customers in the hospitality industry envy firms that have environmental, political, and social policies, which are integrated with the values of the hotel they book.

Ukraine attracted over 20 million tourists each year before the political instability that hit the country in 2014, reducing the number of visitors by half (Girling, Lanier & Gordy, 2016). The visitors came from diverse parts of the globe but currently, tourists from Turkey, Israel, Western, and Eastern Europe comprise the largest groups. As a destination, Ukraine was on a crossroad between Eastern and Western Europe and borders Russia. The captivating physical features in Ukraine make it among the best tourist destinations in Europe. This has been the result of the policies adopted by the government agencies and the player in the hospitality industry (Stepanenko, 2015).

The country has numerous mountain ranges suitable for hiking, skiing, hunting, and fishing such as the Carpathian Mountains. A coastline bordering the Black Sea has remained a popular destination for summer vacations. Although the tourism industry in Ukraine is considered underdeveloped, it is a key supporter of the Ukrainian economy. There is therefore a need to investigate whether sustainability can be one of the key factors that can contribute towards enhancing tourism in Ukraine, particularly, in the capital Kyiv.

Sustainability in the Hospitality Industry

In the past two decades, there has been an increasing consciousness among the hoteliers and entrepreneurs in the hospitality industry regarding the social, political, and environmental impacts of hotel operations and development (de Grosbois, 2012). This trend has increased to an extent that the issues of sustainability have permeated almost every aspect of the industry (Rodríguez-Antón, Del Mar Alonso-Almeida, Celemín, and Rubio, 2012; Chen, Sloan & Legrand, 2009). The industry is constantly evolving, and creativity has provided novel ideas that have helped in meeting the demands for the booming sector. Hospitality activities have had significant effects on the environment in many countries (Jauhari, 2014).

For example, the fundamental need to provide fast food has resulted in profound environmental problems related to wildlife habitats. This growth has been driven by various factors including operators’ and owners’ desires to minimize the operational costs and changing the investor attitudes towards the environment by integrating the emerging issues with corporate social responsibility programs of the company (UNECE, 2005; Garay and Font, 2012). In addition, the general shift towards the sustainability paradigm has led to an increased regulatory focus on the operations of hospitality businesses.

While most aspects of the hospitality sector (such as bed capacity, hotel occupancy, capitalization rates, etc.) can be easily recorded and interpreted, the concept of sustainability has remained difficult in terms of quantification (Smyth, 2011). Sustainability majorly deals and touches on all the most important facets of hotel management and ownership. These aspects include procurement, marketing, production, and waste disposal. These activities necessitate the realignment of policies based on environmental, social, and economic facets that tend to encourage accountable business operations at all times (Goldstein & Primlani, 2012). Although there are no universally accepted metrics, there is an observable shift towards sustainability with momentum only demonstrated by the increasing initiatives and programs that deal with sustainability and that arise from internal and external operations.

As stated by Jenkins and Schröder (2013), sustainability in tourism has the greatest influence on the success of the hospitality industry in Ukraine which has yielded both positive and negative results. Most of the high profile hotels now advocate for environmental conservation and have begun providing green energy to reduce the level of waste into the environment (Reddy & Wilkes, 2015). The increased sustainability awareness can be attributed to the rise of environmentalism, which has been both a major driver and provides constraints to the realization of sustainable hospitality operation.

In Ukraine, and in particular Kyiv, sustainability has been regarded as one of the significant issues for both the private and the public sectors. The aims of the initiatives created intend to increase the sustainable business practices within the industry in addition to raising the awareness and the demands, which are significant for both the consumers and the firm owners. The current study intended to investigate the significance of sustainability in the hospitality industry in Kyiv city, Ukraine.

Literature Review


This chapter discusses a collection of literature that offers information on how sustainability, in general, has affected the hospitality industry. It also introduces reliable information on the studies relating to sustainability that can help the stakeholders in the hospitality industry to improve their operation in the business. Thus, the chapter focuses on the theme of sustainability education and emphasis in the tourism and hospitality fields. The themes of sustainability awareness in meetings, events, lodging, food, and beverage sectors are identified and applications to practice in the field of hospitality introduced as the key to future success in the industry.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework depicted in figure 1 shows clearly that the three main variables share a cause and effect relationship with the study topic of this dissertation. The first variable sought to explore how the environmental factors affect the impact that hospitality services have on the environment. The second variable discuss how the implementation of different government policies and global regulations on the hospitality industry affect the impact of sustainability in the hospitality industry. The last variable discusses in detail how the social impacts of the hospitality industry have had effects on sustainability.

Economic Sustainability

This is the process by which an organization creates the means by which economic capital can be maintained. It involves devising ways of maintaining capital and keeping it intact. According to the New York Academy of Sciences (2013), the conventional economic standards of distribution and effectiveness must be made full scale. At its general level, sustainability is the capacity to uphold an activity or process infinitely. Enhancing progress that satisfies the current requirements without hindering the capability of the current resources to satisfy the needs of the future generation (Reddy & Wilkes, 2012).

Sustainability is the act of utilizing, preserving, and harnessing the community’s resources to maintain the ecological process in which life depends and also to increase the total value of life in the present and future (Bartlett, 2012). Sustainability means so many things to different people and it can also be used to suggest the financial viability of an environmentally friendly situation for the future (Prabhu, Taisch and Kiritsis, 2013). Notwithstanding the general differences defining and interpreting the term, sustainability is generally associated with the purpose of maintaining the society’s well-being in the long term. However, there has been continued disagreement on whether to include the aspects of sustainability to the analysis of public policies.

From an economic perspective, sustainability involves a wide approach that is represented in three pillars: social, economic, and environmental (Heizer & Render, 2013). Sustainability can only be achieved when every pillar has been supported to present a useful classification of the pertinent dimensions. Within the economic framework, sustainability is said to have been achieved if society’s well-being is maintained over time. The well-being of a society is defined by economic production which includes households and the environmental services and non-market outcomes like social correctness (Dredge, Airey & Gross, 2015).

Maintaining the well-being of society for a period of time means attaining and protecting the entire stock of capital, which is the ultimate productive and fundamental platform that provides an opportunity where the well-being is eventually derived (Sloan, Legrand, and Chen, 2009). These capital resources include society’s public goods like buildings, roads, machinery, natural ecosystem, fossil fuels, minerals, human capital like education, knowledge, skills, and health (Parkinson, 2011). In addition, social institutions and the relationships that govern the interaction of humanity must be protected. People tend to value the tangible value of services provided including the advantage of knowing that there exist certain forms of tangible capital that may be used to them, either at present or in the future.

In this analysis, the inherent postulation is that visible resources can be depleted if the society does not invest in other types of capital to counteract this problem (Jones, Hillier and Comfort, 2016). Through this kind of protection, natural resources do not get diminished over time and this provides a promise to the potential future generations that their lives will not be affected by the activities of today (New York Academy of Sciences, 2013). In the same way, the accumulation of human capital through the attainment of education and acquisition of skills can help in substituting for the produced capital (Wei, 2008). Advancement in technology can also help in creating an effective capital stock thus enabling the production of goods and services using the minimum amount of capital inputs possible (Chan, Okumus and Chan, 2015). This is called the assumption of substitutability and it rests at the center of the controversial debate on sustainability.

The concept of maintaining the well-being of people is central to understanding the concept of economic sustainability (Andreas, 2011). Conventionally, the national statistics accounts, economic models, income use, utilization of goods, and services with an apparent economic market act as indicators for well-being. Normally, this eliminates the non-market results that contribute to the well-being such as utilities derived from taking a holiday, voluntary activity, leisure activity, or social interaction supported thorough different forms of social capital (Legrand, Simons-Kaufmann & Sloan, 2012). This does not mean that economists do not understand the importance of well-being but rather most models do not take into account market outcomes explicitly because of the difficulties involved in accurately defining and weighing their true values.

Interpreting economic sustainability as required may imply that society should at least uphold the concept of intergenerational equity (Walker and Walker, 2012; Zhuang et al., 2007). This means that the decisions about the level and amount of resources to use at a given period of time should be controlled, or how much capital to gather and conserve including the conservation of the visible resources for the sake of the coming generation. According to Reddy and Wilkes (2012), ‘trade with posterity’ is a situation where society appears to consume more capital but on the other hand, they save and invest in the production of human capital in order to have something tangible that the future generation can inherit which is equivalent to the stock of natural capital present today (Hartwick, 2007). Therefore, the hospitality industry should consider sustaining intergenerational equity in order to enhance economic sustainability for the future.

Economic sustainability refers to the capacity of a business venture to make a profit so that it can provide benefits to the economic systems as well as survive both at the national and the local level (Sloan, Legrand, and Chen, 2009). Most of the businesses that are successful within the region in which they operate must be able to consider the economic impact that their business operations have on the community they operate from. Some of the economic sustainability aspects that an enterprise should be aware of are the economic value that it creates in the community where it is operating (Barber, Deale and Goodman, 2011).

For instance, a given business should evaluate and assess its impact on the valuable contribution towards economic growth, the creation of job opportunities, and the local wages they give to employees within the area they are operating (Jones, Hillier, and Comfort, 2016). In addition, the suppliers and all the engaged parties within the supply chain must indulge in activities that incorporate values and principles that lead to economic sustainability (Peiró-Signes, Verma, and Miret-Pastor, 2012). As companies work towards economic sustainability, they also must ensure that the systems are well balanced to enhance internal financial stability and sustainable corporate profitability.

The hospitality businesses should involve themselves in activities that ensure that the local population is able to access the services and products that are sustainable to them (Bonilla-Priego, Font, and Del Rosario Pacheco-Olivares, 2014). For instance, to enhance local sustainable practices, the hospitality firms must take care of the local population by ensuring that they can attract the local population through accessible products and services (Mihalič, Žabkar, and Cvelbar, 2012). This was an aid in encouraging the local population to get involved in hospitality services. Effective sustainability involves reducing the need for excessive use of resources in terms of transport and consumption of relevant resources such as fuel (Rodríguez-Antón, Del Mar Alonso-Almeida, Celemín and Rubio, 2012).

Lundgren developed a model that explains the sustainable development of entrepreneurship which is also linked to the activities that are carried out by the hospitality firms. If there are strong links between entrepreneurial development and the hotels that are present, great economic benefits can accrue, which contributes to the growth of the economy. Consequently, this could lead to improved development (Lundgren and Kjellstrom, 2013). Economic sustainability must evaluate the concept of HRM in its system since it is also a vital element towards economic sustainability.

Economic sustainability can also be revealed from the lens of human resource management. Some human resource management practices usually lead to economic sustainability (Ehnert, Harry, and Zink, 2013). For instance, the hospitality industry needs to correct unjust practices so that it can improve upon the sustainable forms of development in the hospitality or the accommodation industry (Deale and Barber, 2012). There are different human resource practices that lead to sustainable practices.

Equal opportunities for all people lead to economic sustainability. The hospitality industry must be able to deal with the existing traditional forms of discrimination that existed before. Some of the discriminatory attitudes are based on gender, race, and disability (Jayawardena, Pollard, Chort, Choi, and Kibicho, 2013). These issues need to be addressed. Firms that are able to address and deal with these issues in the right manner usually reap great benefits in terms of economic sustainability.

Working conditions and the level of pay also affect economic sustainability in the hospitality industry (Jaafar & Maideen, 2012). Economic sustainability is enhanced by the presence of a good working atmosphere and better pay (Barber, Deale & Goodman, 2011). Long working hours with low wages usually affect the level of economic sustainability in any given hospitality industry. Low hourly payment rates also reduce the economic sustainability of the firms in the hospitality industry (Choi & Sirakaya, 2006). Furthermore, the lack of adequate breaks and over-reliance on gratuities may greatly affect the economic sustainability in the hospitality industry.

Economic sustainability can be affected by the presence of casual labor and the seasonal nature of certain jobs. For example, the presence of seasonal jobs in the hospitality industry makes it impossible for people with family responsibilities in the locality to not rely on them (Prud’homme and Raymond, 2013). Besides, many such positions were only working typically aimed at teenagers and immigrants.

Management styles and systems may also work to contribute towards economic sustainability (Zhang, Joglekar, and Verma, 2012). For example, there are certain management styles that often lead to unsustainability. For instance, unplanned recruitment practices, authoritarian leadership styles, rigidity to change and forcing people to work with non-flexible cultures, may work to discourage the attainment of economic sustainability (Zhang, Joglekar, and Verma, 2012).

Hospitality and the Environment

The strong relationship shared between hospitality activities and the environment has been discussed in numerous studies. For instance, according to Leonidou, Leonidou, Fotiadis, and Zeriti (2013), there has been a unique relationship between the hospitality industry and environment brought about by the development of environmentally-conscious actions that tend to enhance the operations in the hospitality industry. The two factors also have a cause-and-effect relationship. The aesthetic and appearance of a vacation destination is a major determinant of the success of the hospitality industry in an area because is an important aspect of increased activities (Kang, Stein, Heo and Lee 2012). Thus, the state of the environment, sights and sceneries, and the conditions of infrastructure depend on the frequency of tourists and holidaymakers to the destination (Sloan, Legrand & Chen 2009).

Sustainability in development is the ability of a business to sustain itself in the long-term with the necessary profits, social engagements, and environmental efficiency while working in tandem to produce long term developments (Cooper, 2012). In the hospitality industry, there are various factors that can be considered to support and drive the aspect of sustainability (Hoepner, Oikonomou, Scholtens, and Schröder, 2016; Usmani, 2009). For example, the introduction of ecological policies leads to the reduction of energy and water expenses thus increasing net profits. This economic development would not be possible without the internal involvement of the staff through motivation to effectively implement the adopted environmental policies (Kaushik, 2015).

This means that sustainability has to consider the environmental, economic, and social factors of a business in order to achieve the required development (Camillo, 2015; Berkshire encyclopedia of sustainability, 2010). A restaurant or hotel that recycles its waste products like food into compost fertilizer could help in providing the local community with door-to-door soil. Its soil is good for the environment as it can help in promoting goodwill within the community (Neumayer, 2010). This can lead to increases in trust and loyalty to the brand thus benefiting the company’s economic objectives.

Hospitality Industry and Tourism Sector

The two related industries, hospitality, and tourism comprise the largest economic activity in the world in terms of income (NSW Government, 2016). In 2010, the United States generated over $1.3 trillion from the industry alone and provided for more than 7.7 million jobs. This means that one out of every 17 employed Americans worked in the hospitality industry. It also accounted for 3% of US GDP (Cybriwsky, 2014). The industry encompasses a broad variety of sections which include food service, conferences and conventions, lodgings, meetings, special events, and transportation (Burton, Jenks and Williams, 2013; Murtough, Aretino, and Matysek, 2002).

Due to the substantial job creation and economic benefits that contribute to fuelling the public and commercial development in the community, the businesses are involved in commercial activities that appeal to most countries across the globe. However, due to the unique characteristics of the industry, not all the effects are acceptable because the industry involved large companies which are free, unpredictable, and operating under a complex system with many interacting apparatuses and stakeholders (Berkshire encyclopedia of sustainability, 2010).

For example, although the industry is perceived as having optimistic importance to most communities, it also leads to issues related to practice and development. The hospitality industry has been perceived as borrowing a lot from tourism and they are both desirable for the society and the economy by providing jobs, promoting culture, and improving scenic areas (CBCL, 2009). Developing travel and hospitality services in a region can result in more job opportunities created in guest services like restaurants, lodging properties, transport, and sport. The new employment opportunities generate demand for internal migration to the area which increases the population as well as the tourists and holidaymakers.

As observed by Camillo (2015), the increased population places a strain on public resources and also increases the amount of pollution and waste products created. This results in a deprivation of capital and devaluation of the well-being of the local communities. As a result, the sustainability of hospitality development becomes questionable.

Sustainable hospitality activities contribute to a healthy and balanced economy by generating tourism and hospitality-related jobs, revenues to the investors, and taxes to the government (Font, Walmsley, Cogotti, McCombes, and Häusler, 2012). These activities can also help in protecting and enhancing cultural, social, natural, historical destination with built-in resources for the use of guests and the locals. This definition of sustainable tourism includes the triple bottom approach to economic, social, political, and environmental spheres (Frontier Vision Technologies, 2000).

Social Sustainability

This is the process of ensuring that social capital is maintained through adopting the right policies. This means that an organization can develop a way of encouraging the employees and other participants in the hospitality business to invest and provide services in order to create the basic framework for the society (Macleod & Gillespie, 2010; Epstein and Buhovac, 2014). Since the emergence of pervasive concerns of environmental degradation, a great deal of work has been done in the society in order to maintain environmental stability.

In general, any organization or community that adopts the overlapping circles model of sustainability should be concerned about maintaining equal environmental and economic conditions to sustainability. While most companies with sound and adequate environmental reputation have been considered to take a market advantage. Laszlo (2010) argues that the effects of the social and ethical reputation of a company on its performance are not comparable to those who are less concerned. Society perceives such an organization with loyalty because it is viewed as promoting development and providing opportunities for the success of social sustainability projects. The sensitivity towards social sustainability brings a lot of benefits to an organization (Knox and Mayer, 2013; Bebbington, Unerman, and O'Dwyer, 2014). In order to maintain a positive reputation to the stakeholders, a company is required to improve and enhance the role of corporate citizenship by increasingly engaging in some social activities that improve sustainability (Portes, 2014).

Therefore, achieving environmental sustainability in the hospitality industry, firms were required to maintain socially responsible cities, rural areas, and workplaces. The best social sustainability is one that increases the social stability of the people as well as increasing environmental awareness (Heizer & Render, 2013). Hotels should welcome and increase their relevance of social science in conjunction with the existing national policies and having a particular focus on climate change. Therefore, organizing tree planting activities, city cleaning, cleaning of riverbeds, and providing the community with clean water and releasing less affluent into the atmosphere may contribute to social environmental sustainability (Chou, Chen, and Wang, 2012).

Environmental Sustainability

This refers to the act of protecting natural investment and seeking better ways to advance social welfare through its protection. For environmental sustainability to be achieved there should be bearable consumption by a constant population (Harrison, 2010). Environmental sustainability is the capacity of the organization and the society to preserve the worth of the physical environment that is valued for life (Biddle, Davis Myers & Dodhy, 2009). For example, people want to have sustained human life and maintain the capacity of the natural environment to support living conditions for both flora and fauna (Arceivala and Asolekar, 2012). These conditions can only be sustained through creating an environment that produces renewable energy like wind, water, and solar energy. The functioning of the society must be maintained despite the depletion of renewable sources of energy (Mowforth and Munt, 2008). Lastly, companies in the hospitality industry must make sure that the worth of life is maintained for all people in addition to liveability and the aesthetic value of nature.

Any threat to these environmental aspects implies that there is a huge risk to the living organisms in that environment and their life may not be maintained. For example, massive extraction of non-renewable resources likes, oil, coal, minerals, or damage to the general environment can threaten life by causing serious decline or even extinction (Pantelidis, 2014: Higham, 2007). Traditionally, when environmental problems arise in an area, the managers of the environment put into place various measures in order to reduce the degree of damage and waste (Barbier, 2007).

However, the solutions suggested may not always work because the level of threats may be too far for a reverse process to take place. Therefore, increasing the number of environmental managers who adopt strategies that are aimed at preventing damages may help in curbing the destruction of the environment. According to Liu et al. (2013), firms need to adopt a full sustainability program that includes actions to prevent the occurrence of threats, and environmental restoration to reverse the damage already done.

The issues of sustainability often arise due to difficulties in the process of thus affecting the quality of the living location that is valuable to people (Repetto, 1992). Whenever there are such dangers, the degree of emergency to act must be heightened. Environmental sustainability programs encompass actions to minimize the use of natural resources by adopting a recycling approach to consumable products and using renewable rather than delectable resources (Reddy & Wilkes, 2012). In addition, the production process is redesigned to eradicate the creation of hazardous waste to the environment. Therefore, protecting and restoring natural resources is ignited to make a more liveable and beautiful environment (FoE, 1994). The sustainability programs are required to function on a satisfactory scale and must remain operating dependably as long as the threats to the environment exist.

Some of the major threats to sustainability in the hospitality industry include the destruction of habitat or the living environment of the native species (VEA, 2013). This happens when the habitation is cleared for the construction of hotels and recreation centers in areas reserved for wildlife. In some countries, hoteliers are given the right to construct hotels within the wild or marine parks thus displacing wildlife. Another threat is through polluting the natural environment by chemicals and other materials that are dumped into the environment (Dominique, 2014). This can occur when hotels release poisonous substances into the air, dump untreated waste into rivers and contribute to littering the ground.

In addition, when holidaymakers and tourists carry foodstuff from hotels to eat or dump into wildlife reserves, they contribute to environmental degradation and can even change the behavior of animals (Ferguson & Souza, 2010: Bodeker & Cohen, 2008). Emission of greenhouse gases can also cause climate change and contribute to global warming. Thus, most firms in the hospitality industry have decided to ‘go green.’ This is a term used to refer to adopting the sources of energy that does not contribute to environmental pollution like wind and solar. This helps in saving forests because traditional firms used charcoal and timber as a source of fuel and lighting.

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Impact of Sustainability to the Environment

While nurturing and maintaining the social capital, there is a need to satisfy the social, economic and security needs both at present and in the future without undermining the base of natural resources and the quality of the environment in which life depends. As a regular practice in modern business operations, the holiday business and hospitality industry may require more facilities in a shorter time frame than any destination is capable of developing (Pawlewski and Greenwood, 2014). In return, this may also involve more natural and human capital than is reasonably achievable.

According to Lohmannand Dredge (2012), public strategies and corporate perceptions of responsibility in hospitality recognize the need for supporting the developing economy at the same time decreasing costs of growth in social and economic terms. From a commercial point of view, sustainable growth and development in hospitality best favour a method that captures system dynamics (Kamath, Kamath, and Rodrigues, 2014). This means that companies need to develop a strong and adaptive system that can manage and anticipate risks and variability and earning revenue which is not always easy.

As noted by Lück, Maher, and Stewart (2010), a professional is required to have work experience either as an intern or an employee in a reputable firm prior to joining a management position (Travis, 2011). As college graduates in hospitality enter the industry, they face more challenges and opportunities as the modern industry becomes more dynamic and complex. This has led sustainability to receive more attention from large firms and is usually referred to as ‘green’ hotels. In these establishments, reducing energy costs and recycling of biodegradable products are common practices (Sloan, Legrand & Chen, 2009). While corporate social responsibilities are measured as isolated activities by a majority of operators in lodgings and hotels, the crucial monetary sustainability is essential to their survival.

Environmentally responsive business practices can help reduce business risks, improve its reputation, and open new market opportunities for revenue and job creation. The business policies of firms in the hospitality industry have helped in reducing the environmental footprint in various parts of the world while at the same time making a positive impact (Herremans, 2006). Setting high standards in regards to reducing emissions, environmental accounting, and transparent operations can help lessen the demand for raw materials that contribute to the depletion of the natural ecosystem.

In modern business operations, sustainability means more than achieving the desires of contemporary society without spoiling the desires of the future. It implies that there should be more than simple safeguards to the environment and resources in the environment. It is often referred to in three aspects, ‘people, profit and planet’(Stipanuk & American Hotel & Lodging Association, 2006). On the bottom line, these three aspects embrace not only the protection of the environment but also making profits through the stakeholders involved. As illustrated by Saarinen (2009), stakeholders include the employees, shareholders, management, and the residents living within the community in which the firm operates.

In essence, the residents are the ones who are most likely to be influenced in one way or the other by the decisions made by the organization and actions taken. Getting the community involved is a major part of the successful implementation of sustainability policies. Withiam (2013) explains that the hospitality industry is one of a kind because the services cannot be highly mechanized. This means that the industry is people-intensive and without them, the industry cannot perform. The people involved are the hotel employees, the local community that must be engaged, the management, and the clientèle. Since the hotels are not separate entities to people, there is a need to ensure their comfort both at present and in the future.

Community involvement in sustainability can take various forms. Involvement at the community level may include raising funds for local charities, organizing environmental clean-up days for parks and beaches, or volunteer ship in the local Habitat for Humanity projects (Pizam, 2005: Sharpley, 2009). In addition, a business can consider educating people outside the organization in regard to environmental sustainability. Community involvement does not only include the people outside the organization but internal community involvement can also happen where the hotel employees and management are involved (Theodore & Theodore, 2010: Gardetti & Torres, 2015).

Through paying wages, providing benefits, and encouraging volunteering, the organization promotes charitable activities where a culture of environmental consciousness is developed. In return, the knowledge, skills, and knowledge passed on to employees by the organization in regards to sustainability are also passed on to the community. In return, if the employees feel good about the company they work for, they enjoy a degree of job satisfaction which translates into positive energy in performing their duties (Parsa, 2015).

In addition, the local community feels comfortable by being surrounded by hotels that are environmentally conscious and is more likely to support the firms in embracing a partnership in enhancing sustainable development (Adams, 2006). Sustainability awareness and education in the hospitality industry is the best way of ensuring there is a possibility of achieving sustainability in the hospitality industry is pegged on the efforts put in place to create awareness and educate people on its importance.

Impacts of Hospitality industry’s Activities to the Environment

The hospitality industry in most parts of the world remains vulnerable as a result of the shift in the environmental conditions that may hinder smooth operations. Hotels and restaurants have often reported cases of water shortage and increased power consumption due to heavy reliance on built-up assets which consume huge amounts of electricity (Leslie, 2012: Kozak & Kozak, 2011). These factors are clear indicators that hospitality is highly be affected by sustainability issues adopted in the present for the future.

Sustainable initiatives in the contemporary hospitality industry range from energy management projects, undertaking operational changes like towel and linen re-use programs and using better development initiatives like pursuing certification of green buildings among others. According to Matias, Nijkamp, and Sarmento (2013), top executives in the hospitality industry no longer consider sustainability as the primary issue in marketing but as a key factor in making strategic decisions. In 2015, sustainability became a business imperative that required companies to enlighten the employees on the changing regulatory and consumer environment in order to derive strategies that can maximize the market position (Jean-Vasile, Andreea and Adrian, 2015).

Therefore, sustainability has become a defining issue for the tourism and hospitality industry. The increasing population density and depletion of natural resources has created a big business challenge. As (Shandruk and Yurchenko-Mykyta, 2010), argued, the challenging business environment makes sustainability to be more embedded in the features of the industry rather than being regarded as a discrete issue.

According to Jauhari (2014), efforts of sustainability help in improving the brand value of an organization. Some of the companies want to be recognized through corporate social responsibilities. It is undeniable that sustainability is the new way of doing business because it influences the business value (Henn, Hoffman and Biggart, 2013). Through moral motivation, companies invest in sustainability efforts like addressing climate change, poverty, pollution, and other forms of social intervention. The companies that do not know the real value of investing in sustainability efforts do not know the real benefit of initiatives that guarantee both short-term and long term growth. The hospitality industry in Ukraine is dedicated to conservation stewardship as an indispensable measure of their professional success (International Labour Office, 2010). The facilities are required to be of industrial standards and abide by the environmental laws and regulations.

Hoteliers have for several decades turned their attention to the concept of sustainability and its significance in the hospitality sector. Sustainability is linked to several issues within the industry such as social impacts, economic and environmental aspects (Sloan, Legrand, & Chen, 2009). Since the hospitality industry experiences drastic changes and reforms, certain pertinent issues require to be incorporated in order to contribute towards the success of the industry. One of the most important issues is the sustainability of the industry.

There are diverse environmental impacts that have been caused primarily by the hospitality industry. This has been manifested as a result of water and energy consumption, and through the use of durable and consumable products. In addition, the creation of hazardous and solid waste contributes significantly to a lack of environmental sustainability (Sloan, Legrand, & Chen, 2009). Some of the greatest sources of waste generated emanate from the disposal of papers, light bulbs, and batteries, furniture, appliances, and equipment. From an economic point of view, most of the myths that were developed held the idea that any practice linked to green operation is costly and therefore, to a greater extent, unnecessary.

From a social impact perspective, there have been several tremendous changes that have impacted the sustainability of the hospitality industry. The beginning and growth of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the sector has played a key role in changing the way people view the industry. The issue has also produced a great impetus towards social sustainability. Green buildings have also been developed so as to enhance the sustainable development of projects within the industry.

Hoteliers with time have come to realize that they can integrate natural environmental elements with the hospitality industries’ activities to enhance sustainability. In addition, there has been an evolution of ‘green thoughts’ within the community, which has been inspired by several factors including:

  • cost savings;
  • economic incentives;
  • regulatory affairs;
  • guest experience;
  • corporate brand image;
  • brand image (Sloan, Legrand, & Chen, 2009).
  1. First, there is economic motivation.

There are a variety of incentives that the government can put in place to facilitate sustainability issues. Some of these programs may include financial grants, insurance premium discounts, tax write-offs, and evaluated regulations among others.

  1. Second is cost savings.

Saving costs associated with running the activities of the hospitality sector is among the greatest impetuses that affect the way the hoteliers view the concept of sustainability. It can either encourage or discourage the management team of any company or firm. However, there are several emerging factors that have been determined to cause efficiency in the hospitality industry and that can be used as a platform to reduce the costs associated with the sustainability processes (Sloan, Legrand, & Chen, 2009).

Technology and better operational procedures can minimize the costs involved in sustainability. There are a variety of techniques that the hoteliers use in order to contribute positively to environmental sustainability. These strategies aim to reduce re-use and recycle waste. Other concepts that can contribute to sustainability include the use of clean products, sustainable procurement, and staff training programs, which can lead to enhanced performance and greater employee satisfaction and efficiency.

  1. The third is the guest experience.

The hoteliers are supposed to understand the fact that any attempt to invest in environmental technology can contribute towards a positive impact on the number and frequency of guests. Technology may also act to influence the guest’s experiences.

  1. The fourth is regulatory affairs.

There are several regulations that may impact on the level of sustainability practices in the hospitality industry. These are connected to issues such as the handing of environmental waste, hazardous materials, environmental safety, and health. Nonetheless, there are wide ranges of present and future regulatory activities that could impact the activities of the hospitality industry regarding sustainability. The regulatory affairs may go a long way in impacting the construction methods and design of buildings, as well as the approaches towards the different operations.

  1. The fifth is the corporate brand image.

A sustainable corporate culture can provide extraordinary advantages through retaining talents and attracting customers. Most workers usually are encouraged by ‘green’ working conditions (Sloan, Legrand, & Chen 2009). For instance, many people have realized that in order to improve the productivity of different firms in hospitality industries, it is necessary to implement benefits that can produce positive impacts on the wider community. Any company that implements strategies that aim to impact positively on the community can be supported both by the workers and the community members.

  1. Sixth is the image of the brand.

The brand image of a firm can enhance the comprehensive sustainability of the different activities and of the goals of the company. Many companies in the hospitality industry incorporate sustainability in the way they define their brands. Many brands are positioned in a way that caters to the younger generation, who are more inclined to environmental sustainability and are socially active customers. Sustainable business practices lead to improved brand image and reputation of the different brands of services and products that are offered by the firm or company. This in turn leads to greater profits for companies in the hospitality industry.

Research Statements

  1. Research statement 1: Sustainability assists to reduce the costs of operations in the hospitality industry.
  2. Research statement 2: sustainability in the hospitality industry assists to reduce the level of environmental degradation.
  3. Research statement 3: sustainability leads to increased productivity in the hospitality industry.
  4. Research statement 4: sustainability increases the competitive advantage of firms in the hospitality sector.



This chapter will discuss the research methods that were applied in this study and the execution of the recognized research design. So that all the research objectives are achieved at the end of the study, it was necessary to apply a mixed-method approach. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were applied in this study. The study aimed to investigate the significance of sustainability in the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine. This was achieved by comparing the attitudes and actions of the targeted respondents as well as the objective data analysis techniques derived from the study.

The current research used a mixed-method approach and the results used to draw inferences. Questionnaires were used to assist in quantitative research techniques while semi-structured interviews were used to come up with qualitative data that was thematically analyzed to identify common trends or content (Yoo, Lee, and Bai, 2011). This was done so as to obtain a more inclusive understanding of the data.

Mixed-Method Approach

The use of both qualitative and quantitative methods in research has both advantages and disadvantages. Both methods are used together in order to offset each of their individual weaknesses (Creswell, 2014; Fetters, Curry, and Creswell, 2013) Although many researchers believe that the two methods may not epistemologically and ontologically fuse together, they offer an integrated framework. From a technical point of view, data collection and analysis can be carried out and ideas fused together to give a complete view of the issues under investigation (Creswell, 2014). When the mixed method approach is adopted, it helps in the understanding of the complex data, which ultimately gives a more complete and broad explanation about the concept being investigated.

The current research aims to investigate the significance of sustainability within the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine. The research aimed to assess the actions and attitudes of managers in the hospitality sector on sustainable business practices. On the one hand, quantitative research was carried out using the data derived from the questionnaire. It aimed to provide numerical facts and also allow for statistical analysis techniques (Walliman, 2011). Qualitative analysis was done using semi-structured interviews. Its aim was to provide an in-depth understanding of the concept of the significance of sustainability from the point of view of the specific respondents and therefore, get first-hand information.

The application of both the quantitative and qualitative methods in the research regarding the hospitality industry has been intensely applied in previous studies. However, both techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. In order to complement the weaknesses prevalent in both methods, the use of the mixed method, where the two are applied concurrently, gives rise to more accurate findings (Tracy, 2013; Creswell, 2014). It is usually possible to fuse the analysis that comes from the data collected using the two techniques (Bryman and Bell, 2011).

When both methods are used together, there is a deeper and in-depth understanding of the social phenomenon in question (Tracy, 2013). Complex data gives a more comprehensive and complete account of the inquiry that is being made. The complexity that is found in this research is in the attempt to comprehend and compare the different attitudes and actions in order to evaluate the degree of sustainability in hospitality business practices in Ukraine.

The quantitative research method was in the form of a questionnaire, which provided numerical evidence that allowed statistical analysis through software such as SPSS. The qualitative part of the research employed semi-structured in-depth interviews that were target mainly at the top management team members, e.g. the managers of hospitality firms. This group was ultimately targeted to get the breadth and the depth of the issue that is being investigated. To offer a more comprehensive and complete understanding of the issue at hand, each of the methods was used to explain any unexpected results of the findings that might be generated by the other.

Qualitative Methods

Qualitative research methods are usually used to provide rich data from the chosen cases. In-depth interviews are the most common types of interviews used to collect qualitative data. This allows the interviewer to encourage the respondent as well as offer explanations to various issues that the respondent would want to be clarified (Altinay, Paraskevas and Jang, 2015). In addition, the researcher can request or ask the respondents to clarify certain concepts. Qualitative research was used to collect raw data and assist in the exploratory part of the research. In this case, the research tried to explore and identify the trends within the hospitality industry to unearth the significance of sustainability in the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine. Qualitative research assisted in obtaining information for preliminary insights in several unexplored aspects of the research area (Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls, and Ormston, 2013).

Quantitative Methods

Quantitative research involves the collection of data that can be used for analysis. Quantitative research endeavored to establish the relationships between or among variables through the use of statistical techniques. For instance, it can be used to test a hypothesis (Punch, 2013). Furthermore, when carried out with a sufficient amount of data and if done properly, it can be used to explain phenomena and draw conclusions derived from a specific dataset to be used in an entire population (Mertens, 2014). Questionnaires are particularly used to collect data to be used in quantitative research.

Research Paradigm and Design

The researcher focussed on adopting the realistic philosophic approach towards the carrying out of the study. In this case, he was playing a neutral role as an independent researcher. His task was to collect data and make sense of the factual data that was used for analysis in the final report. The research used both the interviews and questionnaires to collect data. The survey questionnaire was important because it allowed the researcher to collect a lot of data within a limited amount of time at relatively low costs.

Pilot Study

The study commenced with the undertaking of a pilot study. The pilot study is important because it tests the questionnaire to determine whether there are any shortcomings and other problems arising from the study (Turk, 2011). After evaluating the questionnaire, the researcher was able to correct any deficiencies and problems present. The pilot study was carried out before the actual data was collected.

Several respondents were chosen to assist in the pilot-testing process. The pilot was carried out of the area targeted to avoid any bias when the major survey was undertaken. The questionnaire was distributed while others were sent via electronic mail to reach managers who might be busy at the time the researcher was conducting the pilot study. The time it took the respondents to answer the questions was also noted. Respondents were requested to indicate the time it took them to complete the questionnaire.

One section was created to provide the respondents with an opportunity to give any recommendations that would enhance the improvement of the questionnaire. The researcher sought to understand several issues that can be rectified within the questionnaire. For instance, at the end of the pilot questions, the pilot test respondents were asked about the time it took for them to answer the questions, the presence of ambiguity was identified, completeness of the questionnaire, and the comprehension of the questions.

Data Collection Tool Development and Questionnaire Design


Sampling was necessary since it was impossible to collect data from all the hospitality firms within Kyiv, Ukraine for the present research. An appropriate sampling technique must be applied in order to choose a representative segment of the population Sampling procedures can either be probability or non-probability. In probability sampling, every participant has an equal chance of being included in the research. Even if non-probability samples usually limit the level of the information being generalized, the technique was applied in this research since the probability sampling might incur huge costs and also a complete list of all the best members for the research might be difficult to attain (Turk, 2011).

Some of the possible techniques used in non-probability sampling include quota sampling, snowball sampling, purposive sampling, and convenience sampling techniques (Turk, 2011). The present study employed a convenience sampling technique of sampling. In this case, the selection of the respondents was based on either the availability or absence of the respondents. In addition, it depended on the willingness of the respondents to participate in the study.

Data Collection

Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to several respondents. The respondents were asked to read and answer the questions. The questions were simple and easy to manage. Again, there was less interviewer effect and also it was more suitable for the respondents. However, there were several incomplete responses after the respondents returned the filled-in questionnaires. The questionnaires required careful scrutiny to come up with viable observations and hence objective conclusions.

The survey was conducted between 29th April to 10th May, 2016 in the selected hotels of Kyiv, Ukraine. The questionnaire was given directly to the respondents. For the managers of the respective companies, some of the questionnaires were deposited at reception centers. The collection of the questionnaires was arranged either directly with the respondents or by telephone.

The study distributed 120 questionnaires.

Data Collection Tools

The current study chose questionnaires and interviews as the main methods of data collection. Self-administered questionnaires require that the respondents analyze them and answer on their own. This method is advantageous since it is quicker to administer compared to the questionnaires guided by the researcher (Yoo, Lee, and Bai, 2011). In addition, the technique is more convenient for the respondents and does not experience the interviewer effect. However, there are several potential disadvantages, such as responses and incomplete responses (McClean, 2012).

The questionnaire was handed directly to the respondents or was sent via email to save on time and costs. The arrangement on how to pick the completed questionnaires was done either through direct physical contact or through a telephone conversation. The researcher sent 120 questionnaires to the respondents.

Data Analysis Techniques

Data analysis was carried out through the use of software and the findings projected in terms of tables and graphs. The data that was collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Prior to the analysis of the data, each of the questionnaires was edited and coded. There were several values of the Likert scale. They were coded with different degrees based on the level of the answer. For example, 1 was coded to mean “strongly agree”, 2 “agree”, 3 “Indifferent”, 4 “disagree” and 5 “strongly disagree”. There was also a section about the attitudes of the respondents regarding the sustainability practices in the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine.


The questionnaires were analyzed using quantitative methods. The researcher input data in SPSS 21 and then analyzed the data and projected the results in the form of tables, graphs, and pie charts. Before the analysis was carried out, the completed questionnaires were carefully edited and coded. Values were assigned based on the Likert scale ranging from 1 denoting “strongly disagree” 2 “disagree”, 3 “Neither agree nor disagree”, 4 “agree”, and 5 “strongly agree.”

Semi-structured Interviews

The concept of sustainability is defined differently by diverse people. The issue at hand in the current was best addressed through the use of the semi-structured interview. The interview guide served to organize the questions that the researcher prepared (Brown and Rich, 2014). However, the respondents were able to give more answers and in-depth explanations. The interview was designed in such a way that the participants were free to respond to the questions in their own words. The open-ended questions in the in-depth interview allowed the respondents to explain concepts from their point of understanding of the issue of sustainability and sustainable business practices in the hospitality business in Kyiv, Ukraine.

The interviewer at the same time was able to make any clarifications required and that may have arisen out of ambiguity in the questions or the instructions. This provided the respondents with a wide scope to explain or elaborate on the concept that they were asked in the interview. Content or thematic analysis was applied in the analysis of the in-depth interviews.

The qualitative method was used to provide in-depth information from the selected few cases who acted as interviewees. The selection of the individuals was based on a purposive sampling technique. Individuals who are well versed and have wide experience in the field were asked to answer designed questions that will add more information to the study (Kumar, Dhiman, and Dahiya, 2015). In-depth interviews were used. The interviews were chosen based on the fact that the interviewer was able to ask more questions to the respondent. They were able to provide more answers or explanations for their questions. The interview was semi-structured.

To offer complementarity in both the quantitative and qualitative approaches, the questions that were asked in the interview were derived from the questionnaire. In this manner, the interview was able to reinforce, expand, or offer necessary contradictions on the findings that were given in the questionnaire (Creswell, 2014). The questions were highly linked to the objectives of the study.

The interviews were conducted where ever the respondents felt most comfortable depending on the agreement between the researcher and the respondent. Before commencing the interview, the respondents were told about the purpose of the study. A digital recorder was used. Respondents were informed that their answers would be recorded, and the necessity in doing this was explained to them. They were assured complete anonymity in the information provided. The sessions lasted between 20-50 minutes. The researcher took notes during the interview session regarding the ideas and thoughts of the interviewee as it unfolded throughout the interview.

After collecting the data, the interviews were manually coded. Thematic and content analysis techniques were used to draw important information, which was very significant for the study. In this case, different themes were put into different categories. The re-occurring trends or themes were identified within the data that was collected. The relationships between the arising trends or themes were then identified and used to supplement the quantitative technique.


In the process of carrying out the research, the author was required to observe certain ethical standards. One of the ethical issues that were observed was the provision of a cover letter. The cover letter explained the specifications of the researcher, the place where the research was undertaken. Furthermore, he/she was required to explain the objectives of the research in order to create a rapport with the respondents (Brown and Rich, 2014). The cover letter was also used to explained the voluntary nature of the exercise and assured the respondents of total anonymity. In this case, the respondents were told that the data collected was used for the purposes of research and no names were used.

Data Analysis

The study had a response rate of 91.7% as 110 questionnaires were filled out of the 120 questionnaires that were distributed. Out of the total expected responses, 8.3% of responses were not received.

Out of the total number of respondents that were relied upon to give information from the questionnaires, fifty-four point five percent (54.5%) of the respondents were male while forty-five percent (45%) were female. The figures show balanced incorporation of gender representation; a factor that is vital in the analysis of the perceptions of both categories with regards to the concept of sustainability in the hospitality industry.

The purpose of the question was to seek an understanding from the point of view of the respondents on the reasons they thought sustainable practices were practices within the hospitality industry. From the data analyzed, thirty-six point four percent (36.4%) of the respondents indicated the reason for sustainable practices in the region to be minimizing the use of natural resources, 22.7 % indicated recycling of products, and 40.9% indicated use of renewable energy.

The question of the benefits of sustainable systems in the hospitality industry formed the core of the paper. From the analysis, thirty percent (30%) of the respondents indicated the benefits of sustainable practices to be increasingly competitive advantage, twenty-four point five percent (24.5%) indicated increased productivity, twenty-two point seven percent (22.7%) indicated reduced costs, whereas the remaining 22.7% indicated reduced carbon emission.

The respondents indicated different areas where the concept of sustainability is highly needed in the hospitality sector. For instance, from the analysis, sustainable practices are utilized in procurement, marketing, production, and waste disposal in the hospitality industry in the region.

Players in the hospitality industry are likely to face many challenges in the course of implementing sustainable practices in their daily practices. These challenges may work to impend development and growth in this sector. The analysis found several challenges that may arise as firms implement sustainable practices within their systems. Some of the challenges in sustainable practices identified in the study include intense human capital labor and high start-up costs.

In Kyiv, Ukraine, there are practices that can be termed as facilitating sustainability in the hospitality industry. Sustainable practices in the sector are enhanced by the use of clean products, sustainable procurement, and staff training.

From the above pie-chart, the incentives of sustainable practices in the region encompass cost savings, economic gains, corporate brand image, guest experience, and regulatory affairs.

The bulk of the respondents strongly agree that the hospitality industry should be regulated by sustainable practices. From the pie chart, 23.6% of the respondents hold the idea that sustainable practices should be enforced in the hospitality sector. Twenty-five point five percent strongly agree with the concept that sustainability practices should be enforced by the concerned parties in the hospitality industry in Ukraine. Only 14.5% of the respondents disagree with the assertion while 18.2 % do not know if the concept of sustainability should be enforced within the hospitality sector or not.


Sustainability is rated as among the major modern paradigms that have been integrated with development in many aspects of society. Businesspeople in the hospitality sector have also recognized the value of sustainability especially in assisting the different firms in achieving their desired dreams. Sustainability in the current world makes use of the triple-bottom-line approach, which integrates sustainability from the economic, social, and ecological facets (Govindan, Khodaverdi, and Jafarian, 2013). Economic growth in hospitality companies, for instance, can be enhanced through ensuring that viable sustainability programs are effectively implemented. The current research has identified the diverse importance of sustainability practices in the hospitality industry in Kyiv, Ukraine.

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From the study, sustainability promotes both social and economic growth within the hospitality industry. It can be an effective means of increasing profits in business through social engagement and reaching effectiveness in terms of environmental management. When players in the hospitality industry engage in sustainability practices, resources such as water and energy can be conserved. The motivation of the staff through internal involvement can assist in economic development. Companies that engage in the sustainability industry can see an improvement in their reputation. Moreover, sustainability results in customer loyalty. This ultimately guided companies operating within the hospitality industry to achieve their desired objectives.

From another insightful perspective, sustainability practices can help to achieve strong and adaptive systems that can anticipate as well as manage risks and variability, which can be able to assist to bring more revenues that may not be easy to earn under normal circumstances.

Through sustainability practices, raw materials can be utilized in the most efficient manner, and this reduces the possibility of depletion of the resources within the ecosystem. In addition, market attraction, an important factor in economic development, is enhanced by social and economic sustainability practices. These practices lead to both the short term and long term economic growth of companies.

From the research, there are several important results that can be identified after the analysis of the data. First, sustainability reduces the cost of operations. Secondly, it reduces the possibility of environmental degradation. Thirdly, it leads to increased productivity. Fourth, sustainability produces competitive advantage of the firms that are able to implement viable sustainability practices.


The researcher faced several limitations in the process of attempting to achieve the desired objectives. These limitations might have affected the efficiency of the data in coming up with the relevant conclusions. For instance, only 120 participants were sampled for the study out of a Kyiv population of 2.8 million. Therefore, the results might not provide the most accurate picture of the whole population. In addition, using the Likert scale (agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree) would not be a reliable method of knowing the actual responses of the people since they only indicate the degree. Therefore, they make it hard to ascertain the real position and answers of the respondents regarding a specific situation. Furthermore, the researcher faced challenges in getting enough literature that could be used to unearth more information regarding the sustainability practices in Ukraine.


The research could be improved if the sample size were made larger. The larger sample would ensure the representation of the whole population. To avoid any bias and prejudice probability, the sampling technique can be used. This also enhances the attainment of more accurate data. The research needs to be carried out in other areas to ascertain whether similar findings uncovered in this study could also be found in other areas. This can help to know if the significances of sustainability applicable to Ukraine could also be the same in other areas.

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