Primary Prevention Care Work Plan

Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

Primary prevention care helps to prevent diseases by controlling its causing agents or living a healthy lifestyle. Every year many people die due to preventable diseases that could have been controlled at the primary level. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections is on the rise, despite the international efforts to curb infections. Various strategies have been used to prevent infections, but they have been unsuccessful. According to the CDC (2014), the highest population with sexually transmitted diseases is among adolescents.

For instance, studies say that gonorrhea and chlamydia infections are high among females aged between 15 and 19 years. Awareness at an early age can help to prevent infections and promote health. The community needs to be aware of the existence and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Reduction of infections can be achieved by teaching teenagers on prevention practices. This proposal focuses on teaching a work plan for adolescents on the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

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Epidemiological Rationale for the Topic

In the United States, the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases is increasing among youth (CDC, 2014). Studies show that the risk of getting STDs is high among adolescents (CDC, 2014). STDs prevalence is also high among teenagers who use needles for injecting drugs. According to a study by the CDC (2014), one out of four sexually active teenage females have STDs.

Adolescents of between 15 and 24 years contact half of the existing STDs. The high prevalence of STD infections among teenagers is attributed to the existing barriers to getting preventive services. These barriers include a lack of confidentiality in health centers and a lack of money. In 2012, the cases of young adults reported having chlamydia infection were 70% out of the reported cases (Martinez, Copen, & Abma, 2011).

The rate of chlamydia is high among teenagers of 15-19 years. The rate of chlamydia infections increased sharply between 2008 and 2011 and then decreased by 5.6% between 2011 and 2013. In 2012, the number of females aged 15-19 had the highest proportion of infected with gonorrhea, as compared to other age groups. These were a decrease of 8.2% from 2011 (Martinez et al., 2011). According to the CDC (2014), syphilis among females of 15-19 years has been increasing annually, since 2004.

According to CDC statistics (2014) on high school students in 2013 states that 46% of adolescents had sexual intercourse. Out of the 34% of students who have had sex within the three months, 40% of them did not use protection. 15% of the students who participated had sexual intercourse with more than four partners. Risky sexual behaviors are rampant among teenagers and have led to an increase in the prevalence of HIV infections. In 2009, 8,300 adolescents who reported to CDC from 40 states were HIV+. Still, in 2009, there were numerous cases of unprotected sex, whereby 400,000 girls aged from 15 to 19 years became pregnant. Almost half of the population infected with HIV are young people aged between 15 and 24 years (Martinez et al., 2011).

Nursing Diagnosis

The prevalence of STDs among adolescents is caused by a lack of awareness on the prevention of STDs, as it is observed in teenage adolescents' sexual behaviors. The prevalence of STDs among females is higher as compared to males. One of the reasons for a high prevalence is that sexually transmitted diseases are more easily detected in men. Therefore, it takes more time to diagnose STDs in women than in men. The lack of health insurance results in a lack of treatment, leading to further transmission. Some youths are involved in violent relationships and thus are afraid to negotiate the use of protection, such as condoms. Half of the teenage girls who have sexually transmitted infections reported having been sexually abused (Raiford, DiClemente, & Wingood, 2009).

Cultural traditions sometimes contribute to an increase in infections. Some cultures require women to be submissive to men and diminish the ability of young girls to reject having sex or to negotiate the use of protection. Another factor that has contributed to the increase of STDs is poverty (Raiford et al., 2009). Some teenagers may not perceive STI as dangerous if they are facing more life-threatening situations; for instance, homelessness or hunger. Also, high indulgence in alcohol is another cause of a high prevalence of STDs among adolescents. Young men and females indulge in alcohol at an early age, which makes them have irresponsible sexual behaviors. Others share needles to inject drugs and get infected afterward.

Readiness for Learning

Emotional and experiential factors will be used to test student’s readiness and eagerness to learn. One of the indicators of readiness to learn is the ability of learners to be able to express sexual feelings towards the opposite or the same sex. The learners should also develop curiosity about their bodies. They should be triggered to ask questions regarding their sexual behaviors and body responses. Another factor that indicates readiness to learn is the existence of teenagers who are active in sexual relations.

Learning Theory to Be Utilized

Social development theory will be utilized in this teaching plan proposal. This theory was developed by Lev Vygotsky between 1896 and 1934 (Daniels, 2005). The theory states the role of social interaction in personal development. Social interaction plays a major role in cognitive development. According to Vygotsky, social learning comes before development. All functions of a child’s cultural development appear two times. First, a child learns on a social level, whereby she/he learns about other people, later the child learns at an individual level about himself or herself. In his theory, Vygotsky expresses the role of a person who is more knowledgeable than the learner, for instance, teacher, adult, peer, or computers (Daniels, 2005).

Teenagers are highly influenced by peer pressure (Daniels, 2005). This teaching proposal will use demonstrations that encourage interactions that will help teens learn from one another. Vygotsky also brings in the theme of proximal development. The theme shows the difference between the ability of a student to perform a task under the influence or peers/tutor and ability for a student to perform a task independently. Student’s understanding will be tested by giving out tests to be done by a group of students and other tests that are to be completed individually. Teenagers learn through social and cultural tools, such as social media. Adolescents mostly socialize through social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Using these examples in the learning process will help them understand the content.

Goal

The first objective of this teaching proposal is to reduce the number of adolescents with chlamydia infection. Statistics show that 7.4 females of 15 to 24 years in 2008 were diagnosed with chlamydia. In the same years, 7.0 male workers of below 24 years were infected with chlamydia. The reduction of these proportions is possible through early prevention by educating young adults on sexually transmitted infections (Martinez et al., 2011).

The second objective is to reduce the rate of gonorrhea infections among teenagers. Approximately, 285 females of 15-44 years tested positive in 2008 out of a population of 100,000. Two hundred and twenty males aged 15-44 years out of 100,000 males were tested positive for gonorrhea (Martinez et al., 2011).

The third objective is to lessen the number of teenagers infected with genital herpes. Between 2005 and 2008, 10% of adolescents tested positive for genital herpes. The fourth objective is to reduce the proportion of teenagers infected with secondary and primary syphilis (Martinez et al., 2011).

Creativity

  • The learning process uses visual effects; the process of infection transmission will be explained by using the visual images. The majority of students in a classroom require an illustration of information. In visual learning, students can link their prior knowledge on a concept to the subject.
  • The pamphlets help students to read and understand on their own. They make a reference whenever they miss out on something.
  • The use of role-plays gives students the opportunity to have real-life experience in the scenario. A role play enhances the understanding, and helps a student remember the subject with ease.

Evaluation of Teaching Experience

Planned Evaluation of Objectives

  1. Questionnaires will be used to evaluate students’ understanding of the topic. Structured questionnaires will be used and students will be required to give their answers. Questionnaires will help to determine the effects of visual images on a student’s understanding capacity.
  2. A pre-test and a post-test study will be conducted to evaluate students’ knowledge based on the understanding of sexual infections, their mode of transmission, and prevention practices. A post-test will be used to determine if students gained any new knowledge by comparing the results of the pre-test and post-test.
  3. The teaching plan will also use an open dialog, especially while discussing abstinence that is hard to understand. Open dialog will involve a discussion between a teacher and students, where a teacher asks students a question, and they respond. Students can also ask the teacher any questions they want. The discussion session will also involve a student-to-student dialog. Students will be requested to discuss a challenging scenario among them, and then they share whatever they discover with the rest of the class. A teacher will gauge the effectiveness of the teaching plan from the responses obtained.
  4. The teaching plan will also be assessed by using post-assessment and pre-assessment. A teacher will ask a question before introducing a subject and after the lesson. Answers obtained at the beginning of the session will be compared with answers that students give at the end of the lesson. For instance, students will be required to illustrate how a condom should be placed, later after the lesson students will be asked whether they learned something new about placing a condom.

Planned Evaluation of Goal

At the end of the year, a school nurse and counselor will be interviewed to get information on whether students have been seeking information regarding sexual infection. Data of students who came asking for guidance regarding sexual infections will be compared with the data obtained at the end of the year. More information on whether the students have been seeking medical care for sexual information will be obtained from nearby clinics.

Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher

The plan will use questionnaires to be answered at the end of the lesson. Questionnaires will not bear students’ names for them to feel free to give honest information, as it will remain confidential. The questionnaire will evaluate whether students’ expectations were met. For instance, the questionnaire will have questions such as: how would you rate the cause? Did it meet your expectation? Please, rate demonstration, the relevance, and applicability of information. In the evaluation forms, students will also be expected to state how the presentation can be improved. Students should also state the most enjoyable parts of the presentation.

Barriers

Lessons on sexual infections may be restricted by the feeling of embarrassment when a tutor or student feels embarrassed about the subject. It can be very embarrassing, especially where demonstrations are needed; for instance, having to demonstrate how to place a condom. It can also be embarrassing for the students. The tutor and students should understand that it is a natural course, and everyone has to pass through it. Another possible barrier is the disruption of the lesion by disruptive students. Adolescents are hard to deal with at times.

Considering the nature of the topic, some students may start asking immature questions. The teacher should be able to control such students and when the students become uncontrollable, they can be sent out of the classroom. Barriers may arise in the evaluation process, where the tutor will require obtaining data from neighboring clinics. The clinics may refuse to disclose the data, as it is regarded as confidential.

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Communication

The class will start by explaining how a person can contact a sexually transmitted disease. At the end of the class, students will answer questions regarding the most important things they have learned. The tutor will also emphasize the importance of abstinence, as the most effective method of preventing STDs.

Community Response to Teaching

At the end of the year, the community will be evaluated to determine whether the course had any impacts on the behaviors of the community. Lessons learned at school should be transmitted to the community. The cases of adolescent sexual infections in the community after this lesson should be reduced.

Areas of Strengths and Areas for Improvement

An area of strength includes profound knowledge in the field of sexual infections and preventive measures. This strength will enhance the credibility of the information taught in the class. It will also be easy to understand for the students since their questions can be answered easily. Areas of weakness and improvement will be identified in the pretest. Areas of weakness should be corrected before the actual class.

Conclusion

Prevention measures at the primary level ensure that diseases are controlled early enough. Sexually transmitted diseases are rampant among adolescents because they lack awareness and means of acquiring early treatment. Most adolescents do not have health insurance covers that limit them from getting treatment. Teenagers are mostly influenced by peer pressure and they end up making wrong decisions. Educating teenagers on the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is important.

According to social development theory, children learn first from society and they later learn about themselves. Therefore, having a community equipped with knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases will help to improve the health of the community. Students should be able to abstain from sex by saying ‘NO’ or use a condom if they cannot abstain.

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