Cardiovascular Disease Management in Hispanic Population

To start with, it should be stated that the morbidity and mortality data for Hispanic populations demonstrate the existence of gaps in health care and a number of needs that have to be fulfilled. Particular attention has to be paid to cardiovascular management, as cardiovascular diseases have become rather common among the Hispanic population. It is worth paying attention to the Hispanic ethnic group because it is the largest and fastest-growing minority in the United States (Ferdinand & Armani, 2010, p. 131). The high incidence of cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic people is a proven fact.

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) emphasizes that 21,6% of Hispanics suffer from high blood pressure, and nearly a third do not take any medications to decrease the blood pressure. Cardiovascular disorders remain the leading causes of mortality in the country and serious steps have to be made. The education of the patients has been approved as one of the most efficient preventive methods.

The major problem connected to this disease prevention measure lies in the fact that 40,1% of the patients consider that their blood pressure is under control. There also exist those individuals who are unaware of their cardiovascular problems and do not know about their need to start cardiovascular disease prevention education. This project aims at finding the susceptible patients, starting the disease prevention education, and evaluating how patient education affects their health care state.

It should be stated that the Hispanic population has been chosen for this project, as there exists the assumption that the number of Hispanic Americans will increase by up to 24% of the population by 2050. As the Hispanic population increases, one can observe an expansion in the prevalence of chronic diseases, among which cardiovascular disorders occupy the central place.

Researchers Oliver and Underwood (2015) have conducted an analysis of the prevalence of this kind of diseases among the Hispanic population and emphasized that this task is rather challenging because multiethnic data are frequently unreported. To understand the effect of the proposed project, it was decided to take the concrete area and analyze the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among its residents. Taking into account that this project aims at researching the health outcomes of the Hispanic population, the Florida Miami Dade Area has been chosen.

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The problem of patient education is essential for advanced practice nursing, as teaching the patient has always been an integrated part of the nursing profession. The American Nurses Association supports the professional nurse’s responsibility to teach patients. In this case, the problem lies not in the process of teaching, but in the selection of right patients, who could apply the obtained information in practice and significantly improve their health state. It should be emphasized that selecting appropriate patients for the trial is a primary nursing focus.

The secondary focus is conducting the effective education of patients, which could assist them in applying the obtained knowledge in practice and improving their health state. One of the aims of this project is to solve the existing problem of appropriate patient selection, and it proposes several ways of choosing patients. Moreover, from the standpoint of nursing teaching, the project is useful because it could provide students with the possibility to train their communicative and patient educating skills. Students will also acquire the practice of dealing with patients who suffer from cardiovascular diseases, which could advance such procedures as patient observation, blood pressure measurement, and treatment prescription.

Students will also learn to deal with relatives of the patients, which may also turn out to be an extremely important skill for future practice. In such a way, this project is directly related to the field of advanced nursing, as it assists students in searching for possible methods of solution to the existing problematic issues. Moreover, it helps students to apply these methods in practice, acquire practical skills in dealing with patients, try themselves in the evaluation process, and finally, assist in improving the level of the health state of the chosen population.

The theory of social learning was chosen as a background for this project. It has to be assumed that the social learning theory is generally applied in order to extend the learning process beyond the teacher-learner relationship and direct it towards the larger social world. In this case, it plays a crucial role because it is necessary not only to conduct the education process but also to spur patients to alter their harmful habits and turn to a healthy lifestyle. The main benefit of this theory for the current project is the fact that it assists in understanding the social behavior and ways of interacting with it. This theory might help to create an invisible connection and understanding between the nurse-educator and patients.

While discussing useful sources that might assist in understanding the components of the health promotion problem, the work Epidemiology, and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Global Challenge (2010) by Labarthe should be taken into account. This work discusses social and physical reasons that lead to the formation of cardiovascular diseases. It discusses in detail all the social and environmental factors, which is essential to become psychologically prepared for the patient education process. Another advantage of this work is the fact that it provides a number of measures that could assist in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. These measures could be used while working out the interventions for the project.

Another useful source, which is also extremely significant for this project, is the work of Social Support and Cardiovascular Disease (2013) by Shumaker and Czajkowski. This work discusses the connection between the social environment and its effect on cardiovascular diseases. It investigates the individual environment and culture, as well as the social influences on disease development. It might serve as a useful source, leading to a deep understanding of the social causes of cardiovascular diseases.

The work The Practice of Patient Education: A Case Study Approach (2007) by Redman is vital for this project, as it discusses practical methods that could be applied in the course of the learning process. Case studies serve as a ground for considerations of the strategies that have to be used and the factors that are worth paying attention to. This source could be a practical example that could show what aspects have to be taken into account while educating the patient. It could perform the role of the guide that could assist in working out the framework for this project.

Another useful source, which has to be applied, is the work Teaching Strategies for Health Education and Health Promotion: Working with Patients, Families, and Communities (2009) by Lowenstein, Foord-May, and Romano. This source is another guidebook that could be applicable in the course of the project’s preparation. It discusses different techniques that could be useful for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Its main advantage lies in the fact that it discusses not only the actual ways of fighting with the first symptoms of cardiovascular disorders but also considers such factors as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity. The authors have worked out the number of practical pieces of advice for the avoidance of these factors, and it assists in achieving the positive outcome in the end.

The last source, which is necessary for this project, is the work by Coulter Engaging Patients in Healthcare (2011). The source is useful, as it provides an overview of the possible methods of improving the care, strengthening of self-care, building the health literacy, and training the professionals. This source provides general background information about increasing the level of patient awareness. It outlines the approaches that are applicable during the process of patient education. The work is vital to this project because it provides both practical and theoretical pieces of advice.

After the selection of the theoretical background and useful literature sources, it is necessary to think about the interventions that might help to solve the disease prevention problem. At first, it is worth finding the solution to the problem of unawareness of a particular share of patients concerning their health care issues and the absence of a decent education about cardiovascular disease prevention. The first step of the intervention plan has to be the appropriate choice of patients. To find patients for the education process, it is worth conducting the following tasks:

  1. Analyzing the health records: the objective of this task is finding individuals who have symptoms of cardiovascular diseases and are at risk of the cardiovascular disease occurrence
  2. Checking the patient health histories: the objective of this research will be finding patients who have already been admitted to the hospital because of cardiovascular diseases.
  3. Conducting the cardiovascular disease symptom survey: this survey could be conducted with the help of telemonitoring. The nurses could call patients who are in the age of cardiovascular risk and ask them the typical questions aimed at understanding whether they exhibit the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases.

After the selection of patients who are susceptible to cardiovascular risk, it is worth educating them about useful and harmful treatment habits, healthy lifestyle, healthy nutrition, and possible disease prevention methods. Several methods of patient education have to be used. They might include a theoretical explanation of the health issues and their practical manifestation. An example of practical intervention is the application of case studies. Patients could observe the unfavorable consequences of cardiovascular diseases in order to change their views towards it. It is necessary not only to teach the patients but also to check their fulfillment of the prescribed behavioral changes.

For that reason, the patients have to undergo special tests during the course of the educational process and every fortnight after the end of the courses. The aim of regular testing will be to understand whether the explanation and practical tips provided by health care professionals have assisted patients in dealing with their cardiovascular problems, whether they followed the pieces of advice provided by nurse educators, and how they managed to improve their health state. All the patients will be from one area, namely Florida Miami Dade Area, and for that reason, checking their progress will not be difficult.

It should be assumed that the major objective of this project is to assist the Hispanic patients in overcoming the risk of cardiovascular diseases and to decrease the prevalence of this disease, in general. The desired target outcome is to achieve a 25% reduction at the end of the project and to make patients more aware of the health risk.

The last section of the work is the evaluation process (see table 1). In the course of the project, the summative and formative evaluation approaches will be used. The formative evaluation is essential for this intervention, as it assists in gathering the data during the early stages of the project and identifying whether the methods are elaborating as planned or whether hurdles appear during the investigation (Unrau, Gabor, & Grinnell, 2007, p. 33). The summative evaluation also plays a vital role because it helps to prepare the necessary data to prove the influence of the intervention and preserve the public trust in it (Smith, 2010, p. 31).

Project Evaluation Plan

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Objective of the Project

Reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases among the Hispanic population of Florida Miami-Dade Area.

Tools

  1. Healthcare records.
  2. Patient health histories.
  3. Cardiovascular disease symptom survey.
  4. Hospital admission data.

Data Analysis

Formative Evaluation

Collecting the data before, during, and after the project, comparing the results, and revealing the effect of the patient education on the health outcomes.

Summative Evaluation

Filling the form, which includes the data from the patient histories, such as the blood pressure, and systolic value, among others. The analysis of the health records, in general, in order to identify whether the project has assisted the individuals who were chosen and whether it managed to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in the chosen area.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, it has to be assumed that this project has several objectives. On the one hand, it could help the Hispanic population to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular disorders and the mortality level. Cardiovascular diseases are generally known as the main reason for the death of American citizens. On the other hand, it is a chance for advanced nursing students to train their practical and analytical skills. Its incorporation could bring positive results for the Hispanic population of the Miami Dade Area and advanced practice nursing students.

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