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Cross-Cultural Aspects

Introduction to Research Paper about Business

Nowadays, international business is gradually capturing our civilization. No one disputes the fact that the dominant role in determining the global policy is played not by the political elites, but rather by the multinational corporations and private greed and aspirations of their respective owners. However, it is also unquestionable that the development and evolution of multinational corporations and other business entities of global significance are influenced by a significant number of various determinants. In particular, their structures and management approaches are determined by the applicable domestic and international legislation, local customs, and the market share of the company and by the nature of the business itself.


Cross Culture Aspects in Global Business

Multiple scholars and their practicing colleagues are routinely perplexed in finding out the most determinative factor of influence, which directly affects the evolution of a typical global business unit, like Coca-Cola, the international beverages producer or Ernst and Young, a well-acknowledged global provider of upscale legal and auditing services. However, insignificant as it may seem to be, cross-cultural differences and particularities very often are one of the decisive factors of effective company management.

The cross-cultural aspect is often advised to be taken into the first line of considerations by the company's top management since the staff of the company is considered among the most valuable assets of a particular business unit. Following the assumption that contemporarily the staff of the multinational companies consists of representatives of various nations and cultural environments, these peculiarities shall be subjected to particular scrutiny of the management department, since failure to consider them leads to the deterioration of the effectiveness.

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the causation between the effective accomplishment of the company's cross-cultural policies and the enhancement of the company business results.

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Case Study Method

One of the most effective methods is the evaluation of the applicable case studies. In the paradigm of this research paper, the evaluation of the business entities operating on the territories of the United Arab Emirates really seems to be the most effective option, since this geographical region is mostly saturated in terms of cultural and national diversity and richness.

The Case Study is an effective tool to conduct detailed research within the frames of a specific phenomenon. The aim of the qualitative case study is to simplify the exploration and discovery of a specific phenomenon, while various data sources are applied by the researcher. A detailed exploration of the topic and a close review of the subject matter of the case study are required for an effective case study. The process of composing a case study is simple in its nature. The first step is the process of definition, which subject matter or criteria will be used for the purposes of the case study. To be more exact, at this stage, both novice and experienced researchers are required to identify the research question or a set of research questions. The most commonly encountered mistake at this stage is the failure to define the scope of the questions sufficiently enough. If this omission is perpetrated, the outcome of the study can be seriously affected.

The second step in composing an effective case study is to set the limits of the study or, in other words, to ascertain what aspects will not be reviewed in this case study. To be more exact, the research problem must be formulated too broadly or there may be too many objectives for a particular case. If one defines the topic of the case study too broadly, the results will be naturally misinterpreted by the researcher, because the scope of the research tools will not cover the peculiarities of a specific research topic.

Covering the aspects of the present research topic, an effective case study shall be integrally limited to the confines of the problem. As it has been mentioned in the previous sections, the problem is defined in the following way: Do employees with higher job satisfaction have a greater desire to work than their colleagues, who are not particularly satisfied with the job environment in their workplaces in business units, which primarily operate in the business markets? In the present instance, companies operating in the business market must be regarded by the researcher, as well as conditions that are somehow connected with the working environment must be reviewed by the research team.

To illustrate this, for the purposes of the present study, there is no need to focus on issues, which address the performance of legal, oil, mining or tourism companies, and there is no necessity to describe the factors, whose nature is not connected with the working environment of a specific business unit, but which hypothetically may, in their turn, affect the performance of a specific business company. For instance, there is no need to scrutinize the market situation of the company or to put the accent on the Human Resources policy of the company due to the fact that these factors are not necessarily connected with the performance of the company.

In fact, they influence the overall performance of the company in general and the financial performance of the company in particular. However, for the hypothesis of the present study, these assumptions are irrelevant. Therefore, in this study, the data will be solely confined to the issues, which cover the aspects connected with the working performance of business agents, who operate in the business industry exclusively and who are not linked to operations of the firm in other industries.

Determination of the Type of the Case Study

The main purpose of this stage is to ensure that the proper structure of the case will be chosen to address the needs of specific research activities. To be more exact, there exist several types of case studies, and they are universally utilized for a variety of different purposes. The specific identities of various case studies are used to group them into explanatory, descriptive or exploratory accordingly.

The overall objective of explanatory case studies is to ensure that the subject matter of a specific study, which may be outwardly difficult for laymen and other non-professionals to understand, must be explained in a clear and comprehensible way so that everyone can comprehend the peculiarities and understand even the most insignificant details of the case study Another widely recognized aim of this type of case study is to ensure that the research process is linked to the projected results of the case study in question. Besides, this very case study strategy is utilized when traditional experimental studies are not applicable and when the traditional type of survey is not possible.

The Exploratory Case Study

The goal of this case study is to inform the target audience about the outcomes of a specific scientific or non-scientific phenomenon, which is not currently available for international and national research communities. Regarding this type of case study from purely scientific positions, it can be easily assumed that this type of case study in general and academic research, in particular, can be determined as the most important one, due to the fact that an exploratory case study provides scientific and business communities with answers to some currently unanswered questions.

However, it must be noted that scientific authenticity and reliability of this type of case study is among the most questionable and objectionable ones (Kutsch & Hall) Leading scholars permanently dispute the relevance and applicability of these case studies, vigorously advocating the idea that these case studies are in advance erroneous in their nature and that they shall never be used for subsequent research unless their authenticity is corroborated by advanced studies. However, the importance of these case studies can hardly be disputed, primarily due to the fact that they may effectively serve as a starting point for researchers when other data are not available for the scientific community.

Descriptive Case Study

The aim of a descriptive case study is to provide a target audience (irrespective of the fact that the target audience is professional researchers or the general public) with the necessary information. Descriptive case studies are usually applied by scientific and business communities to corroborate and affirm the findings drawn from exploratory and explanatory case studies. Therefore, assuming the fact that an exploratory case study is considerably substantiated and well-supported by the findings of a descriptive case study, the obtained results can effectively serve as supportive arguments for the validity of specific conclusions, which are inherent in an exploratory case study. It is used by the scientific community purely to substantiate real-life situations, which have already occurred and which do not require conducting fundamental and meticulous research.

Instrumental Case Study

The aim of an instrumental case study is to ensure that the case is to polish the applicability of a specific theory rather than to develop a general understanding of a specific problem, which is a subject matter of the case study. Thus, these case studies are applied purely for educational purposes, and the outcome of the case study itself is not necessarily important, whereas the accent should be put on how the research is conducted and how consecutively the case study stages are being followed by an individual researcher in order to estimate the individual performance of each researcher of the team.

Multiple and Collective Comparative Case Studies

The purpose of these case studies is to find similarities, commonalities, and differences in case study phenomena. The key factors of these case studies lie primarily in the understanding of the researcher that cases are selected meticulously and that the data have been collected properly and accurately, thereby ensuring that the limits of the case study have not been transcended by a researcher or by a team of researchers (Hillson). Generally, the aim of these case studies is to affirm a specific hypothesis and corroborate it empirically. Because of these reasons, cases must be selected as carefully as possible, with specific attention paid to the fact that the limits and restrictions of the case are spanned by the goals of the case study and that the chosen information is connected to the research topic.

Grounded Theory Approach

This section of the paper provides a deep description of the grounded theory approach and defines whether this theory is applicable for the purposes of this study, evaluating the validity of results and stressing the projected scholarly bias of this approach.

The Concept of the Grounded Theory Approach

The approach in question substantially differs from the rest of the strategies discussed in the previous parts of this study. Alongside the case study method and the phenomenological approach, the aim of this method is to substantiate a specific theory or a specific hypothesis. However, the main difference from the rest of the methods is that the research is reverse in its nature. The first step is data collection, followed by the grouping of the collected data into categories; the final step is the inference of the theory on the grounds of the scientifically collected, proceeded, and evaluated information.

The Validity of the Data

It must be noted that this approach eventually leads to the most substantiated and ultimately the most reliable scientific and business outcomes, primarily due to the fact that the data are collected to be formulated, but not to substantiate the theory. In other words, the facts are very unlikely to be intentionally distorted or misinterpreted by a researcher or a team of researchers.

However, while being an almost undisputed advantage, this postulate may happen to be a disadvantage, due to the fact that if the collected data or information is erroneous, subsequently the elaborated theory will be erroneous too.

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The evaluation of the situation suggests that cross-cultural aspects are definitely of vital importance for the development of the contemporary business structures. Various theories relating to the development of multicultural human resources policies are nowadays taken by the managerial departments of the targeted business units (Renckly). However, a contemporary practice clearly demonstrates that very often this aspect is neglected by the business units. Failure to address this aspect properly and consistently with the existing standards of business practice eventually leads to the overall deterioration of the internal and external business environments of the company. On the other hand, those companies, which have fully managed to elaborate and fully perform such policies, are reported to demonstrate stable business development and shrift tempos.

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