Job Characteristic Model
This model was designed by Oldham and Hackman, who after making experiences have come to decision that only the task can motivate employees to perform labor on the highest level. There is such a link between the type of work and the wish to work: when a person is not interested work process and finds it quite boring, then the motivation turns out to be unchanged, whilst the complicated knowledge-based tasks dramatically pushes the level of the motivation up. There are some ways to make the work challenging: we just should add variety, decision and even autonomy in order to change our attitude to daily round.
The Motivation is closely related to three stages which every employee faces while performing some activities:
1. Responsibility. It makes you understand that everything is up to you – whether to do the job right ad quickly or not.
2. Meaningfulness of the work. This is not just subconscious repetition of previous processes? This is the proper meaning that job has for you specially.
3. Recognition of fruits. To begin with, it shows how the person has fulfilled his task, if he has achieved high results.
While analyzing each of aforementioned stages one can notice that each is emanated from the job specifics. For example, meaningfulness of the work is bounded up with skill variety, task identity and task significance. Responsibility is the result of autonomous work, because the work can give us the independence from the other members of a society. Recognition of fruits is the result of backflash: the person grasps the idea that the result of his work directly depends on how he does this very work. This can exist in any form – for an instance, it can be holding an customer’s opinion poll in order to find out if they are satisfied with the production or not. The backflash is very necessary because it can give the administration all the information that can be used in various circumstances.