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Exercise and Coronary Heart Disease

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Nowadays, it is more and more widespread to die from heart attacks. This paper is devoted to highlighting the situation with the coronary disease and exploring various methods of treatment, especially considering the use of kinesiology. The outcome of the work can be an opportunity to use principles of kinesiology and cure ill people without surgery and medicine.

What is Kinesiology about and Can it Make Wonders?

Kinesis is a movement, logo is teaching, kinesiology is a scientific and practical discipline that studies the muscle movement in all its forms. It is literally translated from the Greek as a science of movements. This definition does not reveal the whole meaning of this discipline. It helps to cure and get rid of many diseases and ailments. The founder of this science was an American  researcher and osteopath George Gudhard. He first noticed that the same muscle may have different energy force, becoming strong and weak for no apparent reason. This observation has given stimulus to this science, which is based on a holistic approach to human. In 1972, Gordon Stokes and Daniel Uaytsayt developed the concept called "Three in One", emphasizing the unity of body, mind, and spirit in a harmonious and healthy life. The main method of examination in previously mentioned  concept was  muscles  testing. It can help to  indicate  correction and rehabilitation programs of all levels of human energy. It appeared  in the early 60s. The system has spread among U.S. physicians and chiropractors. Now, George Gudhard heads the International College of Applied Kinesiology and  has branches in many countries including Russia. Some important principles of kinesiology are based on the understanding that the human body is a self-regulating system. The human body cures itself using the immune and other systems. Body is an independent system on our consciousness. The body knows better than its owner and doctors what it needs at the moment to make it work better. When failures occur, the person feels pain. In traditional medicine, treatment is based on the elimination of pain and discomfort, which is often temporary and sometimes harmful. In kinesiology, muscles can be doctors. Every cell emits energy  and every part of the body has a specific vibration frequency. Energy, which the organs and brain get, goes through so-called energy meridians. It is important to be in harmony with the movement of this energy. The body knows what can make it healthy . Kinesiology communicates with the body through muscles that are directly connected to the brain. Kinesiology can provide a complex of exercises, which  can cure even a heart disease such as CHD.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease that combines angina, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerotic cardio. The term "ischemia" comes from a combination of the Greek words isho, which means "to delay, stop", and haima – "blood." In any part of the heart, blood flow is disturbed. There can be a mismatch between the needs of the heart (myocardium) in the oxygen level of the heart and blood flow of incoming oxygen. This disease appears due to insufficient blood supply to the coronary arteries of the heart due to narrowing of the lumen. Coronary heart disease is by far one of the most common diseases in the world. Prevalence and significance of coronary artery disease is seen from statistics. Coronary heart disease is a very common disease. It is one of the leading causes of death as well as temporary and permanent disability of the population in the developed world. In connection with this, problem of CHD has one of the leading places among the most important medical problems of the XXIst century. In the 80s, it was a trend to die from coronary heart disease in developed countries in Europe. It was about half of the total death rate. It did not depend on age and gender. In the U.S., in the 80s mortality among men aged 35-44 years was about 60 per 100 000 population, and the ratio of death between men and women in this age group was about 5:1. By the age of 65-74 years, the overall mortality rate from coronary heart disease for both sexes reached more than 1600 per 100 000 population, and the ratio of dead men and women in this age group dropped to 2-1.

 The fate of patients with ischemic heart disease depends largely on the adequacy of outpatient care, the quality, and timeliness of diagnosis of the clinical forms of the disease.

According to statistics in Europe, CHD and stroke brain determine 90% of all diseases of the cardiovascular system, which characterizes CHD as one of the most common diseases. There is a classification of clinical forms of ischemic heart disease, each of which has an independent significance in view of the peculiarities of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment strategy. This classification was recommended in 1979 by a team of experts.

 1. Sudden cardiac death.

 a) Sudden cardiac death with successful resuscitation;

 b) Sudden cardiac death (death).

 2. Angina

a) Stable angina (with functional class);

 b) Coronary Syndrome;

 c) Vasospasm angina;

 d) Unstable angina;

 e) Progressive angina;

f) Onset angina;

 g) Post-infarction angina.

3. Myocardial infarction.

 4. Cardio sclerosis.

 5. Painless CHD.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for coronary heart disease are facts, which can predispose the development of coronary heart disease. These factors are very similar to the risk factors of atherosclerosis because the main pathogenesis of coronary heart disease is coronary artery disease.

 The risk factors are associated with cardiovascular disease in epidemiological studies include different models. Risk factors can be classified as follows.

 Main biological determinants or factors are old age and male. It is connected with genetic factors that contribute to hypertension, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and obesity. Here belong anatomical, physiological, and metabolic (biochemical) features such as hypertension, obesity, and the distribution of body fat as well as diabetes. Behavior (behavioral) factors may exacerbate this illness. They are eating habits, obesity as a factor for coronary heart disease, smoking, insufficient physical activity or exercise in excess, adaptive capabilities, consumption of alcohol, behavior that contributes to coronary artery disease. The likelihood of developing of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases increases with the number and the "power" of these risk factors. Currently, people without CHD suffer from the absolute risk to select the most optimal intensity measures for primary prevention of CHD.

Analyzing this disease, doctor determines the nature and scope of preventive and therapeutic interventions. It is important for the recognition of risk factors. It can be done at the individual level of people as well as on a comparative evaluation of different symptoms. It is proved that when the content of cholesterol in the blood serum of 5.0-5,2 millimole/ l, the risk of death from coronary heart disease is relatively small. The number of deaths from coronary heart disease within the next year increases from 5 per 1000 men at the level of blood cholesterol 5.2 millimole/ l to 9 cases at the level of cholesterol in the blood 6,2-6,5 millimole/ l and up to 17 per 1000 people at the level of blood cholesterol 7.8 millimole/ l. The above pattern is characteristic of all people aged 20 years and older. Opinion on raising the acceptable level of blood cholesterol in adults with increasing age as normal has been insolvent.

Coronary heart disease is a pathology, which is based on myocardial damage due to insufficient blood supply (coronary artery disease). Imbalance between the actual blood supply to the myocardium and its needs in the blood supply may be due to the following circumstances:

1. Causes within the vessel:

 a) atherosclerotic narrowing of the coronary arteries;

 b) thrombosis and thrombi  of the coronary arteries;

 c) spasm of the coronary arteries.

2. Causes outside the vessel:

 a) tachycardia;

 b) myocardial hypertrophy;

 c) hypertension.

CHD combines both gained and chronic conditions, including those regarded as independent forms, which are based on ischemia, and those that are associated with changes in the myocardium (necrosis, degeneration, multiple sclerosis). In those cases where ischemia is caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries associated with atherosclerosis or coronary perfusion mismatch, the metabolic needs of the myocardium can be caused. Atherosclerotic plaque formation occurs in several stages. First, lumen does not change significantly. With the accumulation of lipids in the plaque ruptures, its fibrous cover occurs, which is accompanied by the deposition of platelet. This contributes to the local deposition of fibrin. Zone location parietal thrombus is covered by the newly formed endothelium and acts in the lumen of the vessel narrowing it.

With the development and increase of each plaque, increasing the number of plaques and the degree of the lumen of the coronary arteries is largely determined by the severity of clinical manifestations and course of coronary heart disease. Narrowing of the arteries to 50% is often asymptomatic. Usually, clear clinical manifestations of the disease occur in narrowing to 70% or more. The mass of myocardium is subjected to ischemia according to the area of blood supply. The most severe manifestation of myocardial ischemia is observed in stenos of the main trunk or of the left coronary artery.

The origin of myocardial ischemia can often play the role of a sharp increase in its oxygen demand, coronary vasospasm, and thrombosis. Prerequisites to thrombosis due to the damage of vascular endothelium may occur early in the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Significant atherosclerotic arteries do not always prevent their spasm. Serial cross-sectional study of diseased coronary arteries showed that only 20% of the atherosclerotic plaque was preventing the functional changes in its clearance. In 80% of cases, the eccentric plaque preserved the ability of the vessel to expand to spasm.

Nature of the changes detected in CHD depends on the clinical form of the disease and complications such as heart failure, thrombosis, etc..

Clinical Forms

To justify the diagnosis of CHD, it is necessary to establish its clinical form (of the submitted classification) according to generally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of this disease. In most cases, the key to diagnosis is recognition of angina or myocardial infarction. It is the most common manifestations of coronary artery disease, other clinical forms of the disease are found in everyday medical practice less and their diagnoses are more difficult.

Sudden Cardiac Death

Sudden cardiac death (primary cardiac arrest) is allegedly linked to myocardial electrical instability. To form an independent CHD, sudden death is attributed to the death in the early phase of myocardial infarction. It is not included in this class and should be considered as death from myocardial infarction. The latter is defined as a death in the presence of witnesses immediately or within 6 hours after the onset of a heart attack.
Angina is a form of CHD. It can be divided into:

• First mooted;
• Stable;
• Progressive;
• Spontaneous angina.

Angina is characterized by transient attacks of chest pain caused by physical or emotional stress or other factors that lead to increased metabolic requirements of the myocardium (increased blood pressure, tachycardia). In typical cases of angina, which appear during physical or emotional stress, chest pain (heaviness, burning, discomfort) usually reflects to the left arm or shoulder blade. Quite rare and localized irradiation of pain are atypical. Angina lasts from 1 to 10 minutes, sometimes up to 30 minutes, but no more. The pain usually ceases quickly after  2-4 minutes.

Onset angina is varied in presentation and prognosis, therefore it can not be confidently assigned to a specific category of angina. It can be diagnosed in the period up to three months from the date when the patient first suffers attack. During this time, onset can be transited to  stable or progressive forms. This is a very short description of forms of ischemic heart disease.

Why is Ischemic Heart Disease Widespread in the North America?

The North America is a country with various wildlife and different forms of infections. Human beings’ organs of the North Americans are suffering from different forms of risks and unknown ways of ailments. In addition, not healthy lifestyle also can lead to problems with the heart.

Detailed Description of Risks Factors of Ischemic Heart Disease

Characteristics of main factors have bee mentioned above, but there are some additions. There are more than 30 factors that contribute to coronary heart disease.  The main of them is high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, smoking, lack of exercise, frequent alcohol use, family history (presence of diseases of the cardiovascular system in close relatives), male gender, objective process of aging, fatigue, inefficient work and rest, poor nutrition, and stress. Stress  increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Under conditions of stress, the human body produces the so-called stress hormones. In the process, organism is spending a lot of vitamins and nutrients.

It is also very important to monitor the composition of the blood because the acceleration of blood clotting can lead to the platelets from sticking together and, in the end, to the formation of plaque and blood clots.

Age

It is known that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Results of studies suggest that atherosclerosis progresses with age. Already at the age of 35, coronary heart disease is one of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S., one in five U.S. resident heart attack occurs before the age of 60. At the age of 55 – 64 years, the cause of death for men in 10% of cases is coronary heart disease. The prevalence of stroke has more to do with age. With each decade after the age of 55, there doubles the number of strokes, however, about 29% of those who are struck with a stroke, aged 65 years.

The results of the survey is that the risk increases with age, even when other risk factors are still in the "normal" range. However, it is clear that a significant degree of increase in the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke age-associated with the risk factors that can be affected by other factors. For example, for 55-year-old men with a high level of complex risk factors for coronary heart disease, there is a 55% chance of clinical manifestations of the disease for 6 years, while for men of the same age, but with a low-risk complex, it will be only 4% . Modification of the major risk factors at any age reduces the probability of the spread of disease and mortality due to initial or recurrent cardiovascular disease. Recently, much attention has been given to the effects on the risk factors for children in order to minimize the early development of atherosclerosis as well as reduce the "transition" of risk factors with an increasing age.

Gender is one of the most important factors. For women, the incidence is slowly growing at the age from 40 to 70 years. Among the surveyed patients, coronary arteries were normal in 8% of men and 52% women. According to some reports, coronary heart disease develops in women 8 years later than in men. In menstruating women, CHD is rare and usually in the presence of risk factors like smoking, hypertension, diabetes, as well as diseases of the sexual sphere. Gender differences appear particularly sharp at a young age, and begin to decrease with age, and in old age both sexes are affected equally often CHD. In women under 40 years suffering from pain in the heart, marked atherosclerosis is extremely rare. At the age of 41-60 years, atherosclerotic changes in women are found almost 3 times less than that of men. There is no doubt that the normal function of the ovaries is "protecting" women from atherosclerosis. With age, the manifestations of atherosclerosis is gradually and steadily increasing. In postmenopausal women, declining estrogen levels also increase the level of low density lipoprotein. One study shows the following information. In postmenopausal period, total cholesterol increased by 14% and triglycerides – by 12%, low density lipoprotein – by 27%, and high-density liproteidy reduced by 7%. The mechanism of these changes have not exactly been decoded. In women compared to men, there dominated the smaller degree of narrowing. Thus, the vast majority of women under 50 years is almost always possible to reject marked atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries if there are no risk factors. Men also have a pronounced coronary atherosclerosis and suffer from coronary heart disease at any age. However, over the years, the frequency of coronary artery disease and its degree increase regardless gender and age.

Genetic Factors

Significance of genetic factors in the development of coronary heart disease is well-known to people whose parents or other family members have symptomatic coronary heart disease. It is characterized by an increased risk of developing the disease. The associated increase in the relative risk varies greatly and can be 5 times higher than among those whose parents and close relatives are suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Excess risk is especially high if the development of coronary heart disease in parents or other family members occurred before the age of 55. Genetic factors contribute to the development of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and possibly certain patterns of behavior that lead to the development of heart disease.

There are also learned patterns of behavior associated with a certain degree of risk. For example, some families consume excessive amounts of food. Overeating is combined with low physical activity often leads to the emergence of "family problems" or obesity. If parents are smoking, their children tend to be attached to this harmful habit. Then, of course their children will try to create similar conditions of living as their parents had.

Is It Possible to Cure CHD with the Help of Physical Exercises?

No act of life is done without muscle contraction. Muscles work is a reliability of the whole organism. Their work is not just a simple reflex, but also the totality of hundreds of complex coordination of spatial displacement. In humans, there are more than 600 muscles, which may be called the versatile tool. They help people affect the world and realize themselves in diverse activities. The possibilities of muscular system are enormous. One of its main features is that its performance can be controlled freely, i.e. through an act of will. The muscles can be affected in the end by the processes of energy supply. After all, the physical work is done at the expense of domestic energy resources, which are the source of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats from food.

The energy, which is contained in the food, is consumed and with the help of muscles it is transformed into energy. This energy is used for physical and intellectual activities.  Physical activities can generate more energy and this energy can make our blood move to  the heart quicker and without problems. The basis of the existence of living organisms is the continuity of metabolism. It is a kind of cycle of elements of life support. Therefore, it is important to remember the role of muscle activity. It is a natural factor that accelerates the rate of metabolism. Muscle is a bundle of very thin longitudinal fibers, so called myofibrils, which include protein act myosin.

The more muscle fibers become shorter and the more powerful contraction is, the higher is the level of consumption of the energy contained in the cells of the muscles in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is synthesized in the cell "power stations". It is the mitochondria formed by the splitting of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that carry blood through the capillaries. Doing exercises, of course, approved by the doctor, CHD people can improve their organism system working.

What Exercises to Do to Improve CHD Patients Working System?

During the severe manifestations of the disease, therapeutic physical training helps offset the weakened heart function and improve peripheral circulation. To achieve this, it is necessary to use the exercises to the distal limb segments to relax the muscles and a variety of breathing exercises. Most patients with these exercises help slow heart rate and lower blood pressure.

Therapeutic physical training improves functional characteristics of the cardiovascular system compensating for chronic diseases. To do this, do the exercises aimed at medium and large muscle groups and do not forget to continually improve the dosage. These exercises quicken the pulse and increase blood flow.

If the patient is characterized by inadequate blood flow, it is necessary to use physical exercises to improve the performance of small and medium-sized muscle groups. Exercises for large joints must be made with incomplete amplitude, reduced time, and reduced strength. For the body, exercises must be used only in turns, just on the right side and sometimes even added exercise with low summing pelvis. Static breathing exercises should be performed without special breathing deepening. Most results are achieved when combining exercise with a light massage of legs. There is a list of exercises that should be done every day to improve heart and stop this disorder.

You should always remember the morning exercises. It facilitates the rapid alignment of the body-running and helps maintain quality of performance throughout the day, helping to improve the coordination of the neuromuscular system, improvement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

A Set of Exercises

A) position – lying on the back: Raise hands up and make a deep inhalation. Then, hands should be lowered by hand and you should slowly lay them down at your sides. Slow measured breathing. Knees bent. Breath in and exhale. Divert and raise legs in turns. Breath freely. Imitate cycling.

B) position – standing: One leg is laid back on the toe. Backbends, breathe, returning to the starting position exhale. Woven hands with palms up.  Feet standing apart at the width shoulders. Torso is tilted alternately in both directions. Hands are folded in front of chest.
 Hands are on the waist, make slow circular motion of the body. Any gymnastics must be discussed with personal doctors.

Conclusion

 As a conclusion, it is possible to say that in order to apply physical exercises to a medical treatment, it is necessary to know clinical form and type of heart disease. To prevent heart illnesses, people have to follow everyday gymnastics. Training muscles and having good diet, people have an opportunity to avoid such diseases at all. Complex of exercises must be developed for all CHD patients taking into account all  syndromes.

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